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NATS 1860 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Walter Bradford Cannon, Rubber Band, Prefrontal Cortex

Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider
Study Guide

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NATS 1860 Definitions and Keywords: Part II
- Depth of sleep curve: (page 244) This was a concept devised using a
pendular hammer banging on a piece of wood in order to test the sensitivity
to sensory stimulation. Kohlschutter came up with this experiment at 30 to
60 minute intervals of sleep onset, and the hammer was gradually raised in
order to increase loudness to the supposed awakening point. Kohlschutter is
significant to neuroscience because he was one of the scientists to specifically
eliminate a great amount of data in order to achieve his “idealized sleep
curve”. He’s also significant because he was one of the 19th century scientists
to use charts to record things mechanically through instruments. These tests
were made to achieve specific results that they wanted to see, which is why
sometimes scientists would give falsified data.
- Maria Manasseina: (245) One of the only few Russian women trained as
physician in the late 19th century. She experimented on 10 puppies for the
purpose of seeing how long they could stay awake. After their death she
dissected their brains to find that depriving them of sleep caused lesions. She
also noticed that in their brains there were cerebral hemorrhages. She is
specifically important because she didn’t receive a Nobel Prize because she
was a woman, showing how women were oppressed in the 19th century
scientific community, and their contributions weren’t seen as that important.
- Plethysmograph: A contraption invented by Angelo Mosso in the late 19th
century. It was used to indicate decrease of blood supply during sleep, as well
as an increase of blood during the period of wakefulness. The contraption
worked as a glass cylinder where the arm was placed, then it was sealed with
a rubber band, and then filled with water. When the arm expanded, water
flowed into the test tube and lowered the pulling system showing the blood
change. This contraption is important because it was one of the first methods
of assessing brain injuries in different kinds of people using plemographic
tracings to show relaxation in the limbs and decrease of blood supply to the
brain during sleep.
- Hypnotoxin: Pieron and Legendre originally discovered this concept during
their theory that blood from sleepy animals injected into energized animals
would make them also sleepy. This was based on the observation that if you
take the cerebrospinal fluid of a tired animal and inject it into an energized
animal it will produce a need for sleep. Therefore, they speculated that there
was a certain chemical that when exerted into the bloodstream caused
drowsiness. Pieron hypothesized that the unidentified sleep inducing
hypnotoxin probably worked by “eliciting an inhibitory reflex according to
the brown skewering conception”. He thought the center for the hypnotoxin
was in the brainstem.
- Charles Bell: He was one of the scientists to develop the Bell-Magendie Law
that dealt with the motor and sensory nerve roots in the spinal cord. He did
specific work on the dissection and observation of muscles of the face used n
facial expression. His major contribution to the neuroscience society would
be an essay he wrote in the 19th century called the Anatomy of Expressions in
Painting where he would discuss his theory on facial muscles. He is

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significant to the localization theory because he discovered Bell’s palsy. This
disease was viral infections that affected certain sections of the brain and
caused the paralysis facial muscles. Bell’s discovery showed how the ability
to use facial muscles, such as smiling, was important because it allowed you
to communicate with others, as well as telling them how you felt (happy,
angry, or sad).
- Duchenne de Bologne: He’s a scientist who after reading Charles Bell’s work
started using electricity to stimulate specific muscles. His major contribution
to neuroscience is the being the first to use clinical photography. Through
clinical photography he took pictures of patients’ various facial muscle
changes after stimulation. Through this he supported the localization theory
by discovering that stimulation of specific muscles can be identified with
specific expressions of emotion. Also, he discovered a genetic disorder that
caused the weakening of muscles at an early age, and noticed that that also
affected facial muscles and prevented people from being able to show proper
emotions. This disease was called Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy in his
- Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals: Charles Darwin wrote this book
in the end of the 19th century. It stated that there are specific emotions that
are characteristics of species. By this, it suggested that in both man and
animals, the emotions they exhibit were the ones necessary for survival and
inherited from their previous generations. He also wrote that emotions are
adaptive meaning that they were subject to change depending on the
environment that people or animals are placed in. For example, this could’ve
meant that the snarling an adaptive emotion because it was used to place
fear in other animals. Since humans and animals have similar emotions,
Darwin suggested that we all share a common ancestor and emotions are
innate not learned. This meant that through Natural Selection, there are
specific emotions that were necessary for our survival, and that’s why they’re
still present. He claimed that emotions were a clear indication of how we felt,
and as we grow older we gain better control over them.
- Ekman: He was a scientist in the 20th century who wanted to find a culture
that wouldn’t focus on the media of culture. His interest in this was in order
to find out whether emotions are learned or innate. In order to answer his
question he discovered a tribe in New Guinea that was never exposed to
media. He discovered that there were 6 shares emotions between all of these
people: happiness, sorrow, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. Through this
experiment he’s important to the neuroscience community because he was
able to prove that emotions are innate in our nature. He a developed a
technique for using microexpressions (the 6 basic involuntary emotions) to
determine lying in people.
- Id: Involved in the psychoanalytic theories of human motivations and
feelings, it’s also inspired by localization theories in neuroscience. It is
important to the localization theory is its nature of having a specific section
of our reasoning be present. This means that there is a specialized structure
in the brain controlling the subconscious. It essentially suggests that there
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