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Animal Migration Final Exam Review (Lectures + Readings)

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1550
Alexander Mills

NATS 1550 – ANIMAL MIGRATION FINAL EXAM Lecture #3 – Classifying Diversity September 10 , 2012 Biodiversity - Modern classification began in the mid-1700s (Linnaeus: Father of Classification) - System that named/classified; a categorization of species - Evolution  Darwin 2 Key Contributions: 1) Ranked Classification - This system ultimately established 7 categories  all hierarchical (ranked) - Every species is associated with a name in every rank - There are more recent additions: Domains and Life - Ex. 7 categories for the Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus) 1) Kingdom: Animalia (Animals) 2) Phylum: Arthropoda (Animals with jointed legs) 3) Class: Insecta (6 legged arthapods) 4) Order: Lepidoptera (butterlies/ moths) 5) Family: Nymphalidae (brush-footed butterflies) 6) Genus: Danaus (genus name, italics + caps) 7) Species: plexippus (genus name, italics + lower case ‘p’) 2) 2-Part (binomial) names for all species Relatedness or Resemblance? - Topologists: originally created in current forms (immutable/ pre-evolution)  Resembles - Evolutionists: mutable/ changeable, name reflects evolutionary history  related - Phylogeny: evolutionary history (phyle – tribe, genesis – creation) Lecture #6 – Downside of Wintering in the Tropics September 17 , 2012 * Studying Organism: American Restart - Long distance, obligate, complete, nocturnal, Neotropical (new world, Central America) - Ontario, wintertime: a) Wet, mangrove forests  male dominant b) Dry, second-growth scrub  female dominant  Exhibits: sexual habitat segregation ; Males dominant females – takes better territory - Does it matter? Yes, 2 evidence to prove: 1) Early part of winter, there are displacements where 1 bird take another’s property  Males dominants the female’s mangrove territory 2) Methods of Studying Migration: Technique #1: Removal Experiments A) Does the territory get replaced? B) How fast does it get replaced? C) Replaced by a lower status bird, (female, younger) or a higher status bird (male, older)?  Experimented on: Jamaican ‘black mangrove’ and ‘dry scrub’ habitants  Following the removal of the birds (from both habitat): 1) Within 2 days, new or neighbouring birds were ‘moving in’ 2) Territory replacement, more rapid/complete in mangrove 3) Overall pattern: mangroves preferred by both sexes 4) Males (esp. older) dominant females and younger males  Birds that lived in the scrubs have: more mass loss and lower annual survival rates Technique #2: Isotope Analysis - Deuterium: hydrogen that is twice as heavy, also have a neutron (+1P, 1E) - Amount of heavy H in water varies geographically - Carbon 12 and Carbon 13 (6P, 7N) a) Mangroves:  Plants in moister habitats have less carbon-13  Insects that eat the plants in these moist habitats have less C-13  Redstarts eat the insects  a ‘fingerprint’ in their blood  Their C-13 levels are relatively LOW – lasts 6-8 weeks b) Scrubs:  Plants in drier habitats have more C-13 insects that eat it have more C-13  Redstarts eat the insects  ‘fingerprint’ ; C-13 levels relatively HIGH – lasts 6-8 weeks - Method: capture the birds when they first return (1 week) back in Ontario to breed  Take their blood samples and measure the levels of C-13 Technique #3: Mist Netting - Passive mist netting: no bait, uses sex/ breeding - Active mist netting: uses bait - The bait: 1) Food for seed eaters, not insect eaters 2) Technique #4: Song Playback - To get blood – mist net by song playback; using Redstart song + stuffed bird Redstarts returning to Ontario from tropics: - Males: winter habitat quality influences when they come back  Earliest returning birds wintered in the moistest, most preferred sites  Return earlier = higher success rate of reproductively; if young – higher survival - Females: returned at same rate – regardless of winter conditions  However, females wintered in higher quality habitats are able to nest earlier  Nest earlier = have average of 2 more young per summer Lecture #7 – Ctht of Migration September 19 , 2012 - Organisms can die during breeding periods, or winter periods  Spring (northbound) migration; fall (southbound) migration Black-Throated Blue Warbler - Obligate, complete, nocturnal, long-distance, Neotropical - Study their mortality rate: breeding and winter  stationary periods 1) Summer Research:  15 summers, use mist nets to increase capture  male (by song), female (nets near nests)  Technique #5: Mark-recapture or Mark-re-sight Methods • Individuals captured, distinctively marked, later recaptured/ sighted • Determines: fidelity (faithfulness) to site, survivorship, population sizes, etc.  Site Fidelity: return to same area for breeding each year  calculates annual survival  Determines survivorship over the years and within a summer: • Annual Survival: confirmed identity • Summer Survival 2) Winter Research:  14 winters – same methods + call notes (notes that make birds curious)  Mark-re-sight Methods: determine survivorship over years & within a winter: • Annual Survival: re-sighted • Winter Survival 2 Sites: New Hampshire vs. Jamaica - New Hampshire: Males territorial, mid-May to mid-Sept (4 months) - Jamaica: both sexes maintain territories, Oct – March (6 months) - Summer Results: in N.Hamp – low mortality of adults  Monthly/ Summer survival 99% for both sexes - Winter Results: Jamaica – low mortality rates  Monthly survival of 98% for both sexes  winter survival 93% - Annual survivorship considerably lower – migration is dangerous - Monthly survivorship during migration: 80%  Chances are: 80% birds alive on Sept. 15 alive on Oct. 15  85%+ annual mort. during migration  15x higher than mort. of 2 stationary periods Conclusion: - Migration is comes with a cost - Has rewards – otherwise migrants would die out, residents survive  Ex. European Blackbirds – facultative migrants (not obligate) • As they grow older, stop migrating, adopt residency – reducing risks of migration Lecture #9 - Technique #6 – Satellite Telemetry - Argos System 1) Transmitters – programmed to send signal to satellites – periodic intervals 2) Polar orbiting satellites – picks up signals and stores/ relays info back to earth 3) 40+ antennas located around globe – collects data from satellites 4) Processing centers – collect all data, process + distribute to users  2 global centers: France, Washington 5) Users around the world receive data  Biological data published in scientific journals Lecture #12 – Into the Sea – Diadromy Diadromy: - Fish migration between freshwater and saltwater - Occur at predictable life cycle stages - Usually obligate, with a specific destination and purpose - Fish need to have internal systems that cope with the change in salt content - Dia means “through” and dromous means “running” - About 250 species worldwide - Wide variation in patterns  Angfuilliade: Eels  Salmonidae: Salmon  Osmeridae: Smelts Euryhaline - Eury means ‘wide’ and haline means ‘salty’ - Euryhaline fish can cope with changes in salt content of water, but they are not necessarily migratory - Diadromous migrants are all euryhalic but not all euryhalic fish are migrants - Non-migratory euryhalic fish often occupy tide pools (variable amounts of salt) – where salt concentrations vary with evaporation, precipitation, and fresh water drainage - They often occupy estuaries (variable amounts of salt) where large river meet the sea - Euryhaline freshwater species can access other watersheds this way Diadromous: truly migratory fish that migrate between the sea and freshwater – 2 main patterns: 1) Anadromous: Diadromous fish that spend most of their non-reproductive life in the oceans and migrate to freshwater to breed (ana means ‘up’)  Salmons 2) Catadromous: Diadromous fish that spend most of their non-reproductive life in freshwater and migrate to saltwater to breed (cata means ‘down’)  Eels Challenge for Diadromous and other Euryhaline fish: - What to do about salt? - There are many salts, but the familiar one and most common oceanic one = sodium chloride - Sodium (Na+) and Chloride (Cl-) - Called ions because they have charges  things with charges are reactive – bodies have to have systems to cope with ions  in water – sodium chloride exists as separate sodium and chloride ions Osmosis - Movement of solvent molecules (usually water molecules) - Across membranes (cell membranes in fish) - Into a region of higher concentration of solute (ions of salt) - Stops when solute concentration (ions) are equal on both sides Freshwater fish: - Have to have cells in gills/mouth to collect the salts (Na+, Cl-) - Kidneys also resorb salts (Na+ and Cl-) while making urine - Freshwater fish make huge amount of very dilute urine (shed water) - Process takes energy - Water comes in with dilute amounts of salt (Na+ and Cl-)  fish “grabs” Na+ by trading for H+ ions  Fish “grabs” Cl- by trading CO3 (carbonate ions) Saltwater Fish: - Have to drink (thereby take in much salt) - Take steps to retain water and shed salts – esp. through kidney function - Make very concentrated urine – to shed as little water as possible - This process takes energy Salmons are Anadromous: - Moves from salt to fresh water when spawning adult - Moves from fresh to salt water when a smolt (1-3 years old) Pacific Coast Salmon: - 5 species are Anadromous in similar ways  Chinook Salmon, Chum Salmon, Coho Salmon, Pink Salmon and Sockeye Salmon  They spend most of their life and accomplish most of their growth in North Pacific (found in BC waters)  return to birth river to breed, then immediately die  “philopatry” Salmon Migration – huge significance to humans - Native peoples - Current and past economies - Cultural festivals - Ex. Adams River – “Salute to the Sockeye” annual festival Longest Fish Migration - Yukon River has the longest salmon migration (>3000km) - Chinook Salmon - From Bering Sea to upstream of (beyond) Whitehorse Kokanee Salmon - Permanently freshwater – land-locked populations (ex. BC’s Okanagan Lake) The Upstream Migration - Like birds about to cross the Gulf of Mexico – they pack on fact  They do not feed while migrating - Trip upriver takes 3-6 weeks, can be >2400 km and 1200m elevation - During the trip:  Many small falls and rapids must be countered  Dams are disastrous in some cases  partial solution: ‘fish ladder’ construction  Reproductive hormones trigger colour change in both sexes and deformation in males • Jaws stretch into a hook and back becomes humped Spawning - External fertilization takes place in gravel bottoms of well-oxygenated, cool, fresh water - Adults die very soon after - Pacific salmon: are semelparous (reproduce a single time before it dies) - Atlantic Salmon: similar, but they are iteroparous (reproduces more than once before it dies)  Natural, freshwater population in Lake Ontario  Breeding “migration” included major run up the GTA’s Credit River  Extirpated - species that no longer exists in one area exists in another still Ecosystem View of Salmon Migration - Salmon are packages of “rare” materials - High energy molecules and relatively rare nutrients is in high densities inside their bodies compared to the environment outside  Adult salmon gain more than 95% of their final weight while in the ocean - Salmon are nutrient conveyor belt Stable Isotopes help us again - Carbon-12 and C-13 - Nitrogen-14 and N-15 - Oceans are richer in the heavier isotopes (C-13 and N-15) than are freshwater systems - Therefore, salmons (that have stopped eating since returning to freshwater) are enriched in heavier isotopes - MDNs are higher in C-13 and N-15m  find them in bodies of organisms - Salmon creek vs. salmon-less creek  Measurement is of the heavier isotopes – normally more abundant in oceans  For both carbon and nitrogen – higher values for creek with salmon - Evidence of nutrient deficit in freshwater systems of Pacific Northwest  Because since 1900s, pacific salmons have disappeared 40% in Canada Escapement - Fish that avoid being harvested before they get to the spawning areas - Economic goal: enough to produce a new generation - Ecological goal (ignored): enough to also maintain the flow of nutrients back into mountain watersheds - Marine-derived-nutrients (MDN): decomposing bodies of fish  eaten by bears + others  MDN distributed in their droppings - 6-7% of historic nutrient levels From Lecture #13: Technique #8: PSAT - Pop-up Satellite Archival Tags - For aquatic organisms - At a pre-determined time, tag is released from animal and floats - Logged data is sent to satellite - Adult eels captured/ tagged in freshwater in 2006  Satellite Transmissions received 14/22 tagged eels  Some tags were released too early, some traveled as far as 1300 km  Go in a Southwest direction  14km a day average  Too slow  possibly slowed down from tag? Or will later increase speed in the west? - Daily Vertical “migrations” – deep during the day  to avoid predators? Lecture #14 – Salmon Homing How do salmon find their home river? - All species of Pacific Salmon famous for their ability to return to their ‘natal’ river to spawn - To get there – travel through ocean, lake, river, and stream - Each has own orientation clues + requires special sensory abilities - Despite challenge, philopatry is strong, most indiv. return to natal river, even tributary system - Prior to seaward journey, young smolts learn – imprinted the odours associated with natal site  Return journey – adult salmon ready to breed use odours to ‘home’ Olfactory (Odour) Hypothesis 1) Streams differ in chemical characteristics that are stable over time 2) Salmon can distinguish these differences 3) Salmon learn the chemical characteristics of their natal system prior to/ during their seaward migration – remember it, respond to it when they are adults Technique #9 – Lab Manipulations - To test the Olfactory Hypothesis - Exposed juvenile Coho Salmon to one of two synthetic chemical - Result: able to attract salmon into the unfamiliar streams that had one of chemical’s scent during spawning migration 1.5 yrs. later Chinook Salmon - Introduced during 1901-07 - Current Pacific Salmon rivers of New Zealand’s South Island - In North America – populations from different rivers genetically distinct - New Zealand – 30 generations have resulted in genetically distinct populations in diff. river systems  fish ‘home’ as in North America - Microevolution - Study: harvest breeding fish from different rivers – determine differences, release them, look at traits and survival rates of returning fish  Different populations have become suited genetically to rivers they occupy Lecture #16 – Genes and Migration Migration Patterns are changing: Ex #1: American Goldfinch  Challenge: getting enough food – bird houses  Graph: over the course of 40 years, population is stable  Number of birds staying behind are increasing  Partial migrants – some staying behind, most migrate  Microevolution – if the genes changed • Goldfinches were always partial (incomplete), and facultative migrants • Might be behavioural response to changed conditions • Not necessarily a change in genes  mild/short winter, increased bird feeders Ex #2: Blackcap Research  Genetics over 50 years – slight changes  Physical and behavioural changes related to migration  Map: traditional pattern of migration for the studied German population  2 traits: broad beak for winter fruit-eating, long wing for longer distance migration  After WWII, British started putting out more bird feeders • Few Blackcaps migrated north (`by accident`) thrived rather, not killed off  2 migrating pops. less likely to breed together when they re-meet in spring, Germany • Overwinter in British return to Germany earlier than those that go to Portugal – advantage to over-winter in Britain • Two populations in the same place, partly reproductively isolated • After 30 generations, British population physically different: shorter wings and narrower beaks (shorter migration + different food?) Genetic Structure: genetic differences between different migratory populations Ex #3: Willow Warbler  European populations winter in West Africa, Siberian populations in South America  Not different species but genetic differences between the populations - Long haul migrants, most common bird throughout breeding range - Wintering grounds: any country with trees - Spring: Europe, Asia in April-May  Male establish nesting territories, compete for mate  sing  Rapid breeder, average 4-8 youth in 26-28 days  Ready to migrate south in late July-August - Different Journeys: many are banded each year  data pools - Arrive in Africa between Sept – Dec - Flight Strategies:  Small birds, fast refuelling capacity – use their daytime stops to feed, nights to fly  Timing of migration varies – sex and age  Youth migrate before adults which catch up later s • Youth have smaller wings, rounder profile – less efficient for long distances • In spring, males return first – look for territory for potential mate Lecture #17 – Instinct and Learning in Migration - Ethology: scientific study of animal behaviour (ethos – custom, logos – knowledge) - Adaptation: genetically-based trait conferring an advantage to the individual  Spreading or maintained by natural selection - Instinct: a behaviour pattern that develops and promotes an adaptive response to a stimulus (a trigger) from the first stimulation - Learning: a durable and beneficial behaviour pattern traceable to experience - Imprinting: a form of learning – exposure to certain key stimuli early in life forms an association with the stimulating object - Proximate Cause: an immediate, underlying cause based on the operation of internal mechanisms possessed by an indiv.  a trigger for behaviour - Ultimate Cause: the evolutionary/ historical reason why something is the way it is  Benefit of the behaviour Manipulative Experiments - Recent Journal Paper: “evidence for a navigational map stretching across the US in a songbird” - Earlier studies used banding birds and site fidelity - Ex. White-crowned Sparrows were tracked between their migration grounds Technique #10 – Translocation Experiments - Update with fancier technology - Showed that there is both instinctive components to migration and a learning component - Ex. White-crowned Sparrows that were trapped during fall (south) were flown to the east  Released with radio tags for tracking  Results: told us about the learning in migration (difference between the youth/adults)  The adults went towards the ‘right’ wintering grounds in California  Youths went towards the ‘wrong’ wintering grounds in Florida - Implications:  Youths travelling using instinct: they ‘know’ they should head south • So they went south to Florida, rather than California  Adults are travelling with experience  know to fly more westerly than southerly • They know they are ‘supposed to’ arrive in California rather than Florida - This technique still does not tell us how the adults are adjusting; know they’ve been displaced Technique #11 – Hybridization Experiments - Ex. 2 similar European birds both breed in north-central Europe  2 important differences about their migration: • Black Redstarts are ‘tougher’ short-distance migrants; spend winter in southern Europe, rather than Africa  they depart much later in the fall as a result • Common Redstarts are long-distance migrants; winters in Africa, depart earlier  Using hybridization: • Black Redstarts x Common Redstarts = Hybrids • Genetic complement of the hybrids = 50:50 , Black Redstarts: Common Redstarts • So if their migrations are g
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