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Natural Science
NATS 1610
Barbra Czebhan

Definitions  Anatomy: The science of structure and the relationships among structures  Physiology: the science of body functions o Structure of part determines how it will functions  Histology: the science of the microscopic structure of biological material o Ways in which individual components are structurally and functionally related The Structures of the Human Body are Organized on Six Levels  Human body contains atoms held by chemical bonds  Atoms and energy form the chemical bonds holding the atoms together come from the environment 1. Chemical Level a. Subatomic particles- electrons , protons, neutrons b. Atoms- hydrogen atom, oxygen atom, carbon atom, etc c. Molecules- water, glucose, etc.. d. Macromolecules- protein molecule, DNA, glycogen, etc… 2. Cellular Level a. Cells- the basic structural and functional units of an organism i. Smallest living units in the human body b. Organelles- structural components with specific functions within cells i. Mitochondria, ribosomes 3. Tissue Level a. Groups of cells and material surrounding them work together to perform a particular function 4. Organ Level a. 2 or more kinds of tissues joined together to form body structures b. Have specific functions 5. Organ System Level a. Consists of related organs that have a common function b. Some organs can be part of more than one system i. Pancreas- digestive and endocrine 6. Organism Level a. Highest level of organization b. All systems of body to make up and organism, that s, one human being The Characteristics of Life  Metabolism: Sum of all chemical reactions in body o Obtaining and producing energy o Making body structures  Responsiveness o Ability to detect and respond to internal and external environments o To sense changes and react  Movement o Motion of whole body, individual organs, single cells, intracellular structures  Respiration o Obtaining oxygen; removing carbon dioxide; releasing energy from foods  Digestion o Breakdown and delivery of nutrients  Absorption o Passage of subtances through membranes and into body fluids  Assimilation o Changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms  Circulation o Movement of substances I body fluids  Excretion o Elimination of waste from metabolic reactions  Growth o Increase in size and number of cells and intracellular structures  Differentiation o Process whereby unspecialized cells become specialized  Reproduction o Formation of new cells for growth, repair, replacement, or production of a new individual o Production of future generation Survival Needs  Nutrients o Chemicals for energy and raw materials for cell and body formation o Includes carbs, protein, lipids, vitamins and minerals  Oxygen o Required for chemical reactions- mostly to release enegy from nutrients  Water o 60-80% of body weight o Required for metabolic processes o Required for transport of substances o Regulates body temp  Heat o 37C o Partly controls metabolic rate of body  Pressure o Application of force on an object o Atmospheric pressure important for breathing and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide  Homeostatic Control Mechanisms o Monitor aspects of the internal environment and correct as needed o Controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems  Nerve impulses, hormones o Disrupted by stressor  Disturbance in homeostasis results in disease Homeostasis  Functions performed by body systems contribute to homeostasis o Enable cells to survive o Cells make up body systems Internal Environment  Extracellular Fluid o Fluid in which cells live  Plasma, Interstitial fluid  Intracellular Fluid o Fluid contained within cells  Cells make exchanges between intra and extracellular fluids o Substances enter and leave interstitial fluid o As cells draw nutrients from it and expel metabolic wastes into it  Body systems may transfer materials between external world and internal environment o Digestive, respiratory system Homeostatic Control Mechanisms  Receptor or Sensor – provides info about stimuli o Monitors changes in a controlled condition o Responds to change in system o Sends input info- nerve ompulses, chemical signals  Control or regulatory centre- Integrator o Sets range for a controlled condition o Evaluates input signal from receptors o Determines appropriate response o Generates output signal  Effector o Body structure that receives output signal from a ontrol centre o Produces a response that changes the controlled condition Organization of the Human body Organ Systems  Maintenance of the Body o Integumentary o Digestive o Cardiovascular o Lymphatic o Respiratory o Urinary  Support and Movement o Skeletal o Muscular  Coordination and Regulation of Body Systems o Nervous o Endocrine  Continuance of the Species o Reproductive Anatomical Terms  Permit ambiguous communication about body structure and parts  Anatomical Position o Body is standing erect and facing forward o Upper limbs at sides with palms out o Feet facing forward Directional Terms  Used to indicate the relationship of one body part to another  Superior: towards the head, or the upper part of a structure  Inferior: Towards the feet, or the lower part of a structure  Anterior/Ventral: nearer to at the front of the body  Posterior/Dorsal: nearer to or at the back of the back  Superficial: toward or on body surface  Deep: away from surface of body  Internal: Inside body or structure  External: outside body or structure  Medial: nearer to the midline  Lateral: father from body midline  Intermediate: between 2 structures  Proximal: nearer to the attachment of a limb to trunk  Distal: father from the attachment of a limb to trunk Planes and Section  Imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body parts  Sagittal: vertical plane dividing body into R&L sides o Midsagittal: When R&L sides are equal in size o Parasagittal: When R&L sides are unequal in size  Frontal: Divides body or organ into anterior & posterior portions  Transverse: divides the body into superior and inferior portions  Oblique: On an angle 2 Major Body Cavities 1. Dorsal Cavity a. Divided into 2 parts i. Cranial ii. Vertebral b. Divided into 2 parts i. Thoracic cavity ii. Abdominopelvic 1. Abdominal a. Contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine 2. Pelvic a. Contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and female and male reproductive organs 4 Major Body Membranes  Lines cavity and internal spaces of organ and tubes opening to the outer environment 1. Mucous membranes a. Line tissues that open to the enxterior of the body- most have glands i. Respiratory, digestive, reproductive, urinary- line tubes and cavaties ii. Varied functions- i.e., designed to secrete and/or absorb subtances 2. Serous membranes a. Line the thoracic and abdominal cavities and the organs within them i. Enclosed heart and lungs b. Secrete serious fluid 3. Synovial membranes a. Line the cavities of moveable joints b. Secrete synovial fluid 4. Cutaneous membrane a. Form the protective covering of the body Epithelial Primary Germ Layers  Ectoderm – outer layer o Nervous system, epidermis of skin, hair, nails, oil glands, sweat glands, mammary glands, and lining of mouth and rectum  Mesoderm- middle layer o Muscle, bone, connective tissue, dermis of skin, heart, kidneys, ovaries and testes  Endoderm- inner layer o Lining of digestive and respiratory tracts and urinary bladder, pancreas, liver, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands Epithelium  Tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer  Covers body surfaces  Line internal and external surfaces  Cells are attached to one another, little room for other structures o No blood vessels  Upper surface exposed to body cavity or external environment  Bottom surface attached to basement membrane o Basal lamina o Connects epithelium to underlying connective tissue o Nuclei are somewhat basal Functions of Epithelial Tissue  Protection- interface b/w outside world and rest of body o Mechanical trauma and loss of moisture o Toxic substances and pathogen invasion  Absorption- digestive and respiratory lining  Secretion- Glandular Epithelium o Exocrine gland- secrete via ducts to inside or outside of body o Endocrine glands- lack ducts- secrete directly into the bloodstream o Hormones, mucus, enzymes, HCl  Excretion and Filtration- areas of kidney Classification of Epithelium 1. Shape a. Squamous b. Cuboidal c. Columnar d. Transitional 2. Numbers of Layers of Cells in the Epithelium a. Simple (one layer) b. Stratified (multilayered) c. Pseudo stratified (one layer that looks like multilayers)  Surface Specialization o Microvilli o Cilia o None Simple Squamous epithelium  Flattened cells  Occurs in air sacs of lungs, wall of capillaries, and lining of blood vessels  Functions in protection, diffusion, filtration Stratified Squamous  Several layers of flattened cells  Located on surfaces of skin, lining of mouth, esophagus, and vagina  Provides protection against abrasion, infection and drying out Stratified Squamous Keratinized Epithelium  Skin: o Outermost cells are squamous o Outermost cells have no nucleus o Outermost cells contain keratin Stratified Squamous Non-Keratinized  Lines o Mouth o Throat o Esophagus o Vagina o Cornea  Function o Protection o Abrasion o Pathogens o Chemicals Simple cuboidal Epithelium  Cube-shaped cells  Occurs in lining of kidney tubules and on surfaces of ovaries  Functions in protection, secretion, absorption Stratified Cuboidal  Two layers of cube shaped cells  Ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, and salivary glands  Functions in protection Simple Columnar Epithelium  Rectangle-shape cells  Occurs in lining of intestine and uterus  Function in protection, secretion, absorption Stratified Columnar  Several layers of tall, slender cells  Rare, located in urethra  Functions in protection and secretion Transitional Epithelium  Variety of shapes- stretch and shrink- urinary bladder  Outermost cells are largest- may have 2 nuclei Pesudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium  Occurs in lining of resp. Tract  Functions in protection secretion, movement of mucus Connective Tissue Characteristic  Most abundant and widely distributed o Has nerve supple o Vascular o Various forms and variety of functions  Consist of cells and matrix o Connective tissue cells are widely spaced o Within matrix of non-cellular material  Varies in consistency from solid to semifluid to fluid  May have fibres of 3 possible types Cells dependant on Connective Tissues  Fibroblasts Reticular- migratory (move throughout tissue) o Produce and secrete protein fibres  Collagen fibres- strength- resist stretching  Elastic fibres- flexibility- return to original length after being stretched  Reticular fibres- supports framework for soft organs  Adipocytes- not migrated o Energy and insulation o Stores triglycerides  White Blood Cells – migratory o Protection and defense Matrix: Connective tissues p
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