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Midterm

Midterm #3 Review All you need to know for Midterm 3

20 Pages
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Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1670
Professor
Motti Anafi

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Description
Blood = cells + plasma ex. antibodies, serological tests Cells ex. B cells Different Modes of Acquiring Immunity Acquired immunity (main bubble) - Leads to PASSIVE which links to NATURAL through breast feeding, when baby drinks milk, he gets a lot of antibodies that will protect the babies gastrointestinal tract from different pathogens, thus if you are breastfeeding, less gastrointestinal infections) No memory cells for baby Just using antibodies from mother PASSIVE also links to ARTIFICIAL which links to ANTIBODIES FROM SOMEONE ELSE which links to USED AS A DRUG - Can be antibodies from another person or animal - Isolating antibodies from one person, and injecting into a person who needs immediate care - Animals sometimes have antibodies that humans may not have because they were not supposed to be exposed to that antigen in the first place Antibodies - Used for treatment of cancer or tumours - Specific type of antibodies can stop lung cancer which are mediated by over activation of receptors 1 Bind to target cells of tumour cells which stimulate persons immune system to attack those cells Passive immunity is really used as a drug ACQUIRED IMMUNITY leads to ACTIVE which leads to NATURAL Every time you get exposure to pathogens and get antibodies through this way ACTIVE leads to ARTIFICIAL which leads to ACTIVE VACCINATION which leads to ACTIVATING OUR OWN CELLS 16 and 18 are type of strands involved in Cancer Gatocil has vaccine type 16 and 18, on top of this have two other strands 5, 11 which are more important for Vaccine that can almost kill 100% of cervical cancer Best time to give vaccine before sexual activity against HPV Post Exposure Passive Immunization- bacterial toxins: Disease Product Use Diphtheria Specific Ig from horse Treatment of diphtheria infection. This is not a prevention tool. Normally have good immunization to Diphtheria, but since we are not exposed to this pathogen as much, we do not need active immunization antibodies, we need memory cells so that if pathogen returns so we can fight disease But when people choose not to vaccinate their kids, the diphtheria comes back Although pathogen is not common, it can be still found in some communities Therefore the child (its a childs disease) so you want to give him/her antibodies to help fight it If they already have pathogen, then too late to vaccinate, just need antibodies Botulism (If happens in babies, Specific Ig from horse Treatment of wound and food borne usually before 3 months old) forms of botulism, infant botulism is treated with human botulism immune Also, the disease can be found globulin (Baby BIG) However, also there in canned food that was not can be cure in honey but babies arent properly canned. suppose to be given honey. Botulism takes place in babies before the 2 age of 3 months Spores of botulism can be found in nature, can contaminate honey because bees for some reasons conserve those spores and when collecting honey, there is a bit of contamination between the both Babies above the age of 3 months can cope with the spores of botulism in our system, but young babies cannot fight the spores of the Botulanium Bacteria which germinate That is why it is not recommended to feed baby at a younger age with honey There is a treatment to solve this disease through horse antibody but there is still a long time for the baby to recover its normal functions Tetanus Ig from human (Have to makeTreatment of tetanus infection sure blood is not contaminated.) Post Exposure Passive Immunization against Viruses: Disease Product Use Rabies (using active and Rabies Ig Past- exposure (administered with rabies passive immunity.) vaccine.) Given after infection instead of being a prevention tool. Disease Product Use Vaccinia Vaccinia Ig Treatment of progressive vaccinia infection usually resulting from smallpox vaccination in immune that is in compromised individuals Varicella (chicken pox) Varicella- zoster Ig Post-exposure in high risk individuals Cytomegalavirus (CMV) Hyper-immune human Ig Prevention used most often in organ transplantation patients Hepatitis A Pooled human Ig Prevention of Hepatitis A infection Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Ig (HBIG) Prevention in high-risk infants ( administered with Hepatitis B vaccine) Snake and other Reptiles bites Specific IgG(from horse) Post exposure treatment Hypo gamma globulinemia Pooled human Ig Prevention of many diseases in patients with an immune disorder is characterized by a reduction in 3 all types of gamma globulins Vaccines activate our own cells = active immunization Active Immunity Prevention and Therapy of Infections Most of the damage to cells during infections occurs very early, often before the clinical symptoms of disease appear This makes drugs treatment of infection irrelevant in many cases. Prevention of infection is better and cheaper. (Intensive care is very expensive, vaccines cost a couple of dollars, significantly cheaper) Vaccines A vaccine is exposure to a pathogen in order to build antibodies to that pathogen. Memory cells lie dormant until reactivated by pathogen (secondary response) They are organisms or molecules that elicit an immune response. They are harmless agents , perceived as enemies. Vaccines really activate the active immunity. They are trigger active immunity, to stimulate clonal selection, memory cells. Protective immunity against a potential pathogen. Activates acquired immunity. Remember=primary response (vaccination) creates memory cells, secondary response (activated by pathogens) reactivate memory cells. Herd Immunity = describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of the population provides protection to unprotected individuals. Is not so effective if 85-95% of pop is not immunized. In communities that are not immunized = more infections When herd immunity is not working - eg. Wave of mumps at york Milestones in Active Immunization 2000B.C. - sniffing of smallpox crust in China Variolation: inoculation with the wild type smallpox, not the weak viru
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