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Basic Concepts in Immunology.docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi

Basic Concepts in Immunology: Defense from Infectious Disease o Microbes help the immune system differentiate between harmful pathogens and helpful microbes Article about Dogs Eating Poop summary: Dogs eat their poop because helps the dog's digestive system replace flora lost. Infectious Disease and Host Defense Immunology is the study of our protection from and response to foreign invading organisms that altered host cells. o Viruses o we have many vaccines aganist viruses ( but not many drugs) o In many cases, activating the immune system is the only way to fight the disease. o Ex. Small pox, polio, measles o The flu virus can be predicted by looking at sounthern countries coming out of wither, this is used to develope a flu vaccine(flu shot) against the most dominant flu strain o Bacteria o Synergism between antibiotics and the immune system o Antibiotics kill weaker strains of the bacteria and weaken more resistant strains so that the immune system can take over -there needs to be a balance between infections and immunity for the body to be healthy *if the amount of pathogens is greater than the immunity then there will be disease in the body **If the amount of immunity is greater than the amount of pathogens then there will be more autoimmune disorders Consequences of a stronger immunity that is balanced: Allergy- there will be a strong immune response against non threatening cells such as foods Autoimmune disease: where the immune system recognizes some cells as the enemy Acute inflammation-sepsis: O 157 (a type of e. coli)xactly this type of activity. This is coming from our immune system.Acute inflammation is a result of bacteria cells entering the blood stream. People are killed by the immune system that reacts to this. Chronic inflammation-cancer: HepatitisA, B, and virus are causing problems because they are making the body act in chronic ways against the infection. Cells are killed by the virus sand then cells are born back because liver for example knows how to regenerate it itself. At a certain point, there is going to be a mutation in this process, and the result can be cancer. H. pylori can cause gastric cancer. The inflammation cells in the cancer cite are going to turn into cancer cells. Impetigo: contagious skin disease E. Coli: it is not a problem, but it can be quite aggressive (O157 this is the strain found on leafy foods such as lettus and spinnach Immunity vs. Autoimmunity The immune system in general is working to maintain a balance. Our Immune System- an Introduction Video Our Immune System Anatomical and Physiological Barriers (first line of defense such as skin and stomach, also referred to as intrinsic) Innate Immunity (second line of defense, provides general immunity) Adaptive Immunity (third line of defense)– most sophisticated part of immunity in our body. Involves the development of T and B cells that are responsible for targeting a specific invading pathogen. Normal Flora andAnatomical Barriers o Skin o An outer layer of intact skin o Normal flora: it is covering us. We have billions of bacteria cells. For every normal cell, we have 10 bacteria cells
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