SC/NATS 1675 = HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Course Director: Robert (Bob) Crippen
4 Tests: 88%
1 Project: 10%
4 out of 6 Quizzes: 2%
Total Average: 100%
Class Notes: 2013/01/07
Box type shape surrounding by cell membranes
Fundamental structural unit or building block of all organisms
An organism is defined as any living things.
Cells are composed of protoplasm contained in a membrane; (protos = first; plasma = something
formed or molded)
Protoplasm is the essential material of all cells in living organisms. Life depends on, and arises out of, the
continuous chemical activity that occurs in protoplasm. It is also a complex Colloidal System.
A colloidal system is a permanent suspension of finely divided particles including large molecules of
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids (RNA & DNA).
All organisms are divided in five groups or kingdoms:
1. Monera: bacteria & blue-green algae
2. Protists: single celled organisms previously referred to as protozoans. (plant-like/animal like)
3. Fungi: fungus
4. Plantae: plants
5. Anamalia: animals
10,000 times smaller cells
Bacteria has no true nucleus, but they do have nucleus Bacteria has no chlorophyll, but blue-green algae does have.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment involved in photosynthesis.
These organisms are surrounded by a cell wall just like the plant cell.
Single celled organisms
No cell wall
Have ability to move
True nucleus and organelles
Plant – eukaryotic, but they have cellulose cell wall
Important for decomposition, by breaking down to produce nutrients for the environment
Chloroplast and chlorophyll (Chloroplast is an organelle containing a chlorophyll)
Make and produce their own food through photosynthesis for energy
Can’t make their own food, but to take nutrients from the outside.
There are two basic types of cells:
Prokaryotic: (Greek = before kernel [nucleus]) cells consisting of bacteria & blue-green algae.
Eukaryotic: (Greek = true kernel [nucleus]) cells consisting of all other organisms of the
remaining four kingdoms.
Viruses are models of biological minimalism. They consist of a core of genetic material (either a DNA or
RNA molecule) found within a protective protein envelope usually made up of two coats.
They lack cell structures that are commons to all lives.
They do not eat nor grow.
They can’t replicate without a host. They do not exhibit most life functions.
Also known as extreme form of parasites.
Bacteria Animal Cell Prokaryotic cells are important because of the following:
Cytoplasm + nucleus within a selectively permeable membrane
Selectively permeable refers to the property of allowing some substances to pass through the
membrane while preventing the passage of other substances.
Inside the cell membrane, everything is either the cytoplasm or nucleus. Cytoplasm is everything within
the membrane but outside the nucleus.
Class Notes: 2013/01/09
The cytoplasm contains networks of membranes and many other organelles suspended in a clear liquid
Organelle: tiny organ within a cell.
(An organ= a structure composed of several kinds of tissues capable of carrying out a particular function,
a component of an organ system)
Cells tissues Organs Organ Systems Multicellular Organism
Most organelles are surrounded by a membrane, but the ones that don’t have membrane is Non-
In the Animalia Kingdom, cells come in many different size of shape and carry different function.
Cells in the Human Body range from 0.5 to 40 micro meter in diameter
1um = 1/1000 mm
A um is 1/1000 of a mm, and a mm is about the width of the metal used to make a paper clip human
egg= 100 um=1/10 mm
Some nerve cell in your leg can be as long as a meter
Plasma membrane is like a “skin”
The plasma membrane is integrity of the life of the cell; it’s not going to survive. The plasma membrane
is composed of a phospholipid bilayer with attached and imbedded proteins that can change positions.
At room temperature this phospholipid layer is a liquid with the consistency of olive oil. The protein
consist of fibrous proteins (some of which act as receptors) and global proteins. These include peripheral and integral proteins. Some integral proteins act as pores.
The plasma membrane provides three basic functions:
1) It defines the boundary between the inside and outside of the cell
2) It plays an important role in what passes in and out of the cell, i.e. it is a selectively permeable
3) Regulates the internal cell environment, i.e. it maintains homeostasis.
Homeostasis means a state of dynamic equilibrium in the body’s internal environment. (Homeo= alike;
stas= posture; sis=act of)
Nucleus is the largest structure within the cell. It is the control center of the cell, and each nucleus
contains a complete set of “blue prints” for a given organism or individual.
More specifically the nucleus:
1) Plays the central role in cell division
2) Directs the metabolic activities of the cell
Metabolism: all the chemical changes that occur within cells considered together
The contents of the nucleus are referred to as nucleoplasm that includes:
1) Chromosomes(Chromatin): the coded genetic material composed of DNA and protein
2) The nucleolus “little nucleus”: the site of the synthesis of certain types of RNA (specifically r-RNA)
Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells.
Energy is generated through oxidative reactions (chemical reactions involving oxygen) called cellular
respiration. Cellular respiration is essentially the reserve of photosynthesis (the food making process in
plants). During cellular respiration, sugar molecules combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and
water. Energy is released and temporarily stored in a compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Carbon dioxide + Water (Sunlight) Glucose + Oxygen
CO2 + H2O (sunlight & chlorophyll) C6H12O6 + O2
glucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + ATP Energy + Water
C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 (Energy) + H2O
The more active the cell, the more mitochondria would have. Structurally the mitochondria consist of an
outer smooth membrane and an inner folded membrane = cristae. Mitochondria and bacteria cells
share a member of things in common in size and shape. Mitochondria contain their own DNA.
They can divide and reproduce independently Mitochondria was once theorize that they were living bacteria that share symbiotic relationship with
There are 4 organelles share certain characteristics in common: Cilia, Flagella, Basal Bodies and
Centrioles. Cilia and flagella are hair like structures that protrude from the cell membrane. They are
involved either with the movement of cells or the movement of substances along the surface of cells.
Flagella: one to a few per cell and long relative to the cell, ex. Protists and sperm cells.
Cilia: numerous and short, ex. Paramecium and cells in the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes. Other
than length, the constructors is the same for both
9 set of two microtubules and two microtubules in the centre.
Cilia and flagella are originated from Basal Bodies. The structure is located below the cell membrane
Formula is 9+0
9 sets of three microtubules and each set contain three around the peripheral
-position at right angle to each other
- They also function formation of cilia and flagella
Class note: January 14, 2013
Ribosomes: attach to the RNA- a nucleic acid produced in the nucleous. Site of protein synthesis. Some
free in cytoplasm some attached to the endoplasmic reticulum(ER). It's the site to build a protein. Free
cytoplasm is floating around and not attached to the cytoplasm. (Ex insulin) are transported outside the
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): reticule C = pD
Membranous channels with vesicles or sacs and tubules that serve as an internal transport systems to
proteins and others molecules.
Two types of endoplasmic reticulli:
1) Rough E.R. - Is type is covered with ribosomes; the transported proteins are likely synthesized by the
ribosomes on the E.R
2) Smooth E.R- this type is not associated with ribosomes are thought to be the site of lipid synthesis
(such as cholesterol including hormones such as steroids) as well as serving as a site for fat breakdown
into small molecules.
Enzymes are chemical that facilitate all the chemical reactions. Golgi apparatus: (p.314, Fig 3.14) is a cluster of small, flattened membranous vesicles or sacs usually
located near the nucleus. This organelle is involved in the modification, "packaging" and transport of
proteins and other large molecules. It possibly synthesizes certain polysaccharides from simple sugars
and adds or removes these from protein molecules (i.e. glycoproteins)
There are three main kinds of sugar: 1) Simple Sugar: there are many kind of simple sugar (glucose) it
won’t be digested but it would be breaking down.
2) Double Sugar: the ones you put in your coffee (two symbol sugar is double sugar)
3) Complex sugars (starches):
Secretion= the release of the contents of vesicles (vacuoles) outside the cell. The process is called
exocytosis. Exo=outside Cyto= something to do with the cell. The process of exocytosis have new
membrane. Endocytosis: You are adding new membrane to the cell.Exocytosis= you are taking cell
membrane out the cell
Endocytosis is the process by which extracellular contents are brought into the cell by envagination of
the cell membrane. Endocytosis includes two forms:
1. Pinocytosis: invagenation and engulfing of extracellular fluid = drinking
2. Phagocytosis: psudopods surround and engulf particles= eating
Psudopod = false foot
A vacuole is a membrane bound vesicle, sac or chamber formed from the cell membrane, Golgi
apparatus, etc. [ vacuus = empty].
An example of a vacuole will be phagosome.
Lysosomes are membrane bound organelles containing digestive enzymes. Lysosome contains digestive
enzymes that break down cell parts or substances entering by vesicles or lysosome digest the content of
the cells that die.
Microvilli are finger-like projections or extensions from the surface of a cell. They serve two functions:
PRIMARY -- They increase the surface area of cells. This is important in cells involved in transport of
substances across the plasma membrane i.e. intestinal cells.
SECONDARY -- They may also help as a type of "sense organelle" in some cells.
Microfilments/microtubules are filaments/tubes that are composed of protein, and they are frequently
associated with movement. Individual cells are also crisscrossed with protein fibres called
CYTOSKELETON. The cytoskeleton helps maintain the cell's shape as well as anchoring organelles or
assisting in their movement.
Bacteria/ Blue green Algae
Do not have a nucleus, do have DNA
Prokaryotic DNA also includes PLASMIDS, doughut-shaped pieces of DNA that do not contain essential
information, i.e., it is extra DNA that might be useful to the cell/species. Some bacteria have flagellum.
Bacteria share some cytoplasm with individual. Are surrounded by cell wall.
Flagellum is growth from the distal, and if the flagellum break up it takes 20 minutes to be replace.
Congegatation - connecting two bacteria from. An exchange of the cyplasm bacteria between two cells. Plastids - pigmented organelle
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes have many fundamental features in common, especially the method of
transmitting genetic information in a triplet code in DNA and translating this information through RNA.
Each base has to work in three in our DNA.
CELL SIZE: The smaller the size of the cell the greatest the surface area.
PLASMA MEMBRANE: The substances and the movement in the membrane, (Fig 3.26)
The phospholipid molecule (Fig. 3.6) has a polar or charged head that is hydrophilic (water loving). These
hydrophilic heads face outward where they are in contact with an aqueous environment (cytoplasm or
tissue fluid). The tails that face inward are non-polar and hydrophobic (does not interact with water)
The primary function of the plasma membrane is to regulate the internal environment of the cell by
controlling the passage of substances in and out of the cell (selective permeability). It fulfills this process
in several ways:
Simple Diffusion - This is the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an
area of lower concentration. Therefore a concentration gradient is required for this to occur.
Osmosis - Require NO energy and depends on
Passive or Facilitated Transport
Active Transport - Require energy
*CHAPTER 3 IS NOT REQUIRES TO READ, WHAT HE HAVEN'T TEACH IS NOT COMING FOR THE TEST.
ION: sometimes the ions can be a single protocole.
The atoms are made of nucleus, electrons and protons. (See notes in Yuniers copybook)
Class note: January 16, 2013
1) Simple Diffusion ~ this is the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to
an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is achieved. Therefore a concentration gradient is
required for this to occur. Once equilibrium is achieved, the molecules continue to move across the
membrane, but there is no net change in concentration.
Example of substances that move through the membrane in this manner include lipid soluble substances
such as alcohol; gases such as O2 and CO2 can diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer; and
water molecules, other small molecules and some ions can pass through pores formed by integral
proteins. (Fig 3.7 & 3.8)
Ion: a charged particle or can be a single atom or a group of atoms. Examples = Cl-/Chlorine Na+/
Sodium SO4= O -2/Sulfate
He would provide both chemical symbol and the name.
Skim Chapter 2, Figure 2.2 Protons and neutrons are about the same size, protons is p and neutron is n.
There is only one planet in each orbit. Carbon 14: will have 6 protons and 8 neutrons. To be electrically
neutral, an atom of any given element must have the same number of protons and neutrons. Figure 2.5:
Sodium is losing an electron while chlorine atom would receive it.
*He won’t ask us question about ions, he want us to have knowledge of what is an ion.
Isotope ~ one or two or more forms of a specific element. 2) Osmosis ~ this is the diffusion of water across the plasma membrane when non-diffusible
(Something cannot be moved) solutes are more concentrated on one side of the membrane than the
other. The net movement of water is in the direction of the non-diffusible solutes until the osmotic
balance is restored. (Basically we will get to a point that we cannot move more water in, so the process
of osmosis will stop)
3) Facilitated Transport ~ (Fig 3.10 & 31 [4.3]) this is a type of diffusion that requires a carrier substance -
a protein molecule. Like simple diffusion, it only function with a concentration gradient and requires no
energy. Fig 3.6 ~ some molecules essentially attached and take a ride from a protein and pass the
Sugar molecules and amino acids can be transported across the plasma membrane by this method.
Amino acids are the building wall for proteins.
4) Active Transport: [Fig. 3. 11] ~ This method is similar to facilitated transport in that a carrier substance
is required, however, substances can be moved against a concentration gradient, and energy is required
- ATP. Example of actively transported substances include sugars, amino acids and ions such as
Na+[Sodium], K+[Potassium], Ca++[Calcium], Fe++[Iron], H+[Hydrogen] and I-[Iodine].
5) Endocytosis and Exocytosis ~ these processes also require energy. Example of substances transported
in these ways include macromolecules such as insulin, other protein molecules, water and ions, debris
from dead cells and microorganisms.
Chapter 22: Human Evolution
Evolution overheads - Introduction and history 1675
Evolution ~ Comes from the Latin word evolve = unroll. Evolution in the broadest sense is the "unfolding
of a changing continuity", it is change over time.
Organic Evolution ~ the evolution of living organisms - i.e. inheritable change in lines of successive
Microevolution ~ change within a species
Macroevolution ~ one species changes into another
Evolution ~ is also the concept that there is a kinship among all forms of life because all evolved over
time from one common ancestor.
QUIZ 1: Lysosome, exocytosis, microtubules, microvillis, increase the area of the cells.
Time ~ the age of the Earth is a bit over 4.6 billion years.
Genetics ~ comes from the Greek gen = to be born, to become something. Genetics includes the
transmission of traits from generation to generation by birth, and it also includes how traits are
expressed (our characteristics). Many of our traits are visible. Sometime the environment can affect our traits.
Radiometric: Radiation comes from different forms. Have to know the time of the isotope [half-life]
Radiocarbon: carbon dioxide is taking into radiocarbon.
Tree Rings: When you cut down a tree, the ring will give you an idea of how old is the tree.
Stratigraphy: figure 22.3
Mutation ~ refers to the heritable biological changes in cells and organisms that are the ultimate source
for all variations in species.
Mutation is the essence of revolution. Mutation is the process of change in the genetic materials, DNA,
which determines the characteristics of the species. A generic material includes chromosomes; make up
a sub-unit called genes. Some many genes are made out of chromosomes, and DNA is made out of
genes. The process of change in mutation refers to alteration in the numbers of chromosomes or the
genes due to the change in DNA composition.
Causes of mutations include: a) accidents of nature; b) exposure to various chemical compounds; and c)
radiation including x-rays (mostly from medical sources), natural radiation and ultraviolet light. Thats
why people need to be careful in that kind of medication they have, there is a limited of x-ray per person
in a year.
Genetic Engineering ~ refers to the ability to transfer hereditary traits from one organism to another.
The Universe is estimated to be about 13.8 billion years old; the Earth about 4.6 billion. figure 22.1 An
organic must contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
Early or Primitive Atmosphere mostly H2O vapour, N2, CO2 and small amounts of H2 & CO (toxic) plus
energy sources volcanoes, meteorites, radioactive isotopes, lightening & UV eventually produces NH3 =
ammonia (toxic) & CH4 = methane (toxic) further produces fatty acids, glucose, nucleotides, amino
acids, purines, & pyrimidines which leads to proteins eventually coming together to form protocell. (
More details Yuniers Copybook)
Life originated in water
Ozone = O3, is a molecules made of 3 atoms.
Oxygen = O2, to split it you need to combined with other element
Life would not be able to move out without water.
Class Notes: January 21, 2013
The 'first great pollution ev