Exam Review Chapter 12(A)
1. What is the van Karman line? What was the first man-made object to
breach it? Who designed this object, and where did he end up working?
a. Karman line - Imaginary line at 100km above Earths sea level used to
mark the boundary between Earth’s atmosphere and outer space.
b. The V2 rocket, a German WW2 missile became the 1 man-made object
to breach the line.
c. Werner von Braun, designed the V2. He surrendered to the US and
became one of the key architects of theAmerican Space Program
2. How were the 1st photographs of Earth taken from space?
a. Using the V2 rockets used by US military to take 1 photos from space
3. What kinds of animals were first launched into space by the U.S (after the
fruit flies)? What about the Soviet Union?
4. Which country launched the first satellite into Earth-orbit, and what was
this satellite called?
a. Soviets launched “Sputnik 1”in 1957 the 1 unmanned satellite to orbit
the Earth. It remained in orbit for 3 months
5. Which country launched the 1st human into space? Describe how this trip
a. Soviet union
b. This astronaut’s name was Yuri Gagarin; his Vostok spacecraft completed
an orbit of the Earth of April 12th 1961
6. Which country made the first unmanned landings and orbits of the Moon?
What did the Luna 3 take photographs of for the 1st time?
a. The Soviet’s in 1959 made first unmanned orbit and landing of moon by
b. Also took the 1 photograph of it far side of the moon which is not
visible from earth due to the moons synchronous orbit)
7. Why can't we see the far side of the Moon from Earth? Why is the far side
more cratered than the near side? a. We cannot see the far side of the moon because the moon is in a
synchronous orbit around the Earth. The moon is tidally locked with the
Earth. The moon spins the same rate as it orbits its Earth, the side of the
Moon facing the Earth is always going to remain facing the Earth.
b. It is more crater because if the near side is always facing the Earth, that
means the gravity pull on the near side is stronger than it is on the far side,
therefore when the moon is just born and it had molten lava on the inside,
that liquid was pulled towards the Earth solidifying into maria, towards the
moon’s near side and it filled in all the craters. In fact, the moon was once
cratered equally all over it but the craters on the near side is all filled in
and the ones on the far side haven’t so we still see them today
8. Which country made the first manned landing on the Moon? What was this
name of the astronaut who first stepped on the Moon?
a. USA made first manned landing on Moon with Apollo 11.
b. NeilArmstrong first man to walk the moon
9. What is an orbiter? What is a lander? What is a rover?
a. Orbiter is spacecraft designed to orbit planets or other astronomical
objects but not land.
b. Lander is designed to land on the planets/objects.
c. Rovers are designed to probe and move across the surfaces of planets
10. Which planets in our solar system have been landed on by human-made
crafts? Were these missions manned or unmanned?
a. Venus and Mars
11. What did NASA's Space Shuttle consist of? What was its purpose?
a. It consisted of rocket, an orbiter, satellite that goes around the Earth, and a
space plane that would detach itself from the or