20a )what was the mission of the Viking space probes?
Ans: To find evidence carbon based life
20 b) what was concluded on their return, and why?
Ans: they did not find any carbons in their sample – so it was concluded that there is no carbon
based life on mars
** Extra info** but that verdict has been changed because there is carbon on Mars, but they
didn’t find any, they were just scratching the surface, they didn’t probe deeply enough
21) What was found when synthesized Martian soil was studied on Earth?
Ans: If you give nutrients to Martian soil, which it doesn’t normally have it will digest that stuff
and it was found by making the soil radioactive so that if the soil did digest the nutrients
then you would see these burps of light. So that was detected, so that suggested there
might be some life there, as far as we know these samples of Martian soil, they were not
carbon based. So whatever it is digesting this soil is some kind of simple microorganism
that is not like carbon based life on Earth. We don’t really know what happened there.
22a) What is rock ALH 84001?
Ans:Ameteorite that had fallen on the pristine snows ofAntarctica. The rock had been blasted
out of Mars by collision with an asteroid – later to land on Earth.
22b) Why does it suggest that life once existed on Mars?
Ans:ALH84001 was found to contain what appeared to be microscopic, fossilized ‘maggots’
inside the rock.
23a) What evidence of water was found by the Pheonix lander?
Ans: NASA’s Pheonix lander found water ice, carbon and minerals in a Martian polar region.
23b) What about the Opportunity rover?
Ans: Found veins of water deposited minerals in Martians rocks.
23c) What is the mission of the Curiosity rover?
Ans: NASA’s Curiosity is expanding the search for evidence of life on Mars by studying the soil
beneath the surface.
24) Why was the Galileo spacecraft intentionally crashed into Jupiter?
Ans: the craft was intentionally commanded to the collision course with Jupiter to eliminate any
chance of a future impact with Europa (or any local moons) that could contaminate the icy
moon with terrestrial bacteria.
25a) Where is Europa?
Ans: Center-stage 1900 miles (3000km) orbiting Jupiter (one of the largest moon). 25b) What is the evidence for liquid water on this celestial body?
It has an incredibly smooth surface, which astronomers interpret as a layer of ice. Because
Europa is being gravitationally pummeled by Jupiter, it must be warm inside – which leads
researchers to believe that the moon has a deep ocean under the icy crust.
26a)Where are Titan and Enceladus?
Ans: They are both moons around Saturn
26b) What is the evidence for carbon and liquid water on these celestial bodies?
Ans: The evidence is that on Titan we find 2 bits of evidence: it has these methane lakes (carbon
based molecule) and both Titan and Enceladus have these volcanoes which are iced
volcanoes, what we find that spews out of these volcanoes we find H20 water vapor and
more carbon based molecule like methane and carbon monoxide
26c) What is Titan the only moon in the solar system to possess?
Ans:Athick atmosphere (orange atmosphere of nitrogen) nearly twice as dense as Earth. It also
appears to have lakes of liquid methane or ethane, plus hot spots of volcanic activity.
27) What does SETI stand for, and who was its original founder?
Ans: SETI --- Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Founder: Frank Drake
28a) What is the mission of SETI's Project Pheonix?
Ans: to monitor ~800 nearby sun-like star for radio signals form ETs
28b) Has it been successful so far?
Ans: So far…no word yet
29a) What does the Drake Equation measure?
Ans: It estimates the # of communicating civilizations in our galaxy (N).
29b) Can it currently be accurately solved? Why/why not?
Ans: No, It cannot be solved since it terms are mostly unknown, some are guessed based on what
we observe on Earth
30a) Briefly describe the 3 attempts that Earth has made to send messages into space.
Ans a: TheArecibo message (radio message from theArecibo dish).
-Showed basic chemistry of life on Earth, the DNAmolecule and the arrangement of our
Solar System.Also gave the population, Earth’s size and the size of the telescope which
was sent Ans b. The Pioneer plaques (engravings on the Pioneer spacecraft)
- Crude line drawings of human beings and how to locate the Earth with respect to 14
Ans c: The voyagers Golden record (record with audio message and engraving on voyager 1)
-old-fashion LP record on their sides, complete with a stylus. The discs were encoded with
sounds, pictures and messages from Earth
30b) What were the general contents of each message?
Ans: Earth sent 3 messages into space, each containing info about earth and humans.
31) Where is Voyager 1 right now?