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Criminological Theories.doc

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Natural Science
NATS 1745
Robin Metcalfe

Theories in CriminologyLecture 1Scientific Theory Facts Reduces phenomenon to variablesoEx Crime correlation between violence and offencesoWhat isNormative Theory Values What should be done ethicallyCritical Theory Conditions of Possibility What makes a kind of knowledge possible connecting povertycrime in the first placeoEx House foundation is shay so ground isnt solidoEx People are unequal so foundation of society is shakyLecture 2Brutalization Effect If the state kills people think vengeance is okay moral and copy stateCesare BeccariaoFather of rational choice theoryoFeels punishment should be humaneless punishable as possibleoCriminal punishments should be least severe if not then brutalization effectoIdeal CJS effectively detersprevents future crimesoCrimepunishment thinking normative informed by social contract theory utilitarianism human reason EnlightenmentoWanted a proactive CJS thrived for general deterrence wanted offenders to understand immediate consequences oPunishment should be certain swift and proportionateoFelt for the law to appear equal punishment had to be public transparency in lawoRational ActoroBeccarias model of behaviour is hedonism happinesspleasure is highest good and painoIts the ability to weight potential pleasure against potential painoRational Choice Theory Disregards compassion towards others only look at facts whereas Beccarias sense of rationality starts at the human heartSocial Contract TheoryoGive up a portion of your liberty for a peacefulsecure life in societyoThus everyone was equal no socioeconomic problemsThomas HobbesoCreated Leviathan 1651 claiming it was man vs man a state of nature and thus created the social contract theoryoBeccaria feels state of natures selfinterest was moderated by human kindness thus thinking reason should be humaneThe SovereignoLeviathan days was the king and social contract occurred when dealing with citizensoGiven the right to punish to protect the public good thus preserving the social contractoPunishment necessary for the social contract exceeding the punishment is tyrannicaloSynergy Some of the whole is greater than the sum of the individual partsHarm Principle Crime injuresharms society Crime harms public good society is the victimDeterrence is a form of crime prevention preventing reoffending and like offencesSpecific Deterrence oPrevents specific offenders doing further harm to society oBeccaria suggest imprisonment rather torturebodily harm giving least pain and mostlasting effectoIn Beccarias time stealing an apple would lead to death no deterrence of you not killing the person youre stealing the apple fromGeneral Deterrence Prevents others from committing like crimes when situation is publicEffective PunishmentsoPublicoImmediately enforced with certaintyoNot overly severe Beccaria fears brutalization effectharsh are ineffective deterrenceSeverity of punishment should be proportionate to severity of offence no rehabilitationconsideration of offenders intentLecture 3General DeterrenceoCelerity Speed of punishment Ontario 92 court appearances average 205 days caseoCertainty of punishment Whatre your chances of getting caughtoSeverity of punishment What happens once caught no longterm deterrent effectsPerceptual Deterrence TheoryoPerceptions matter when wouldbe criminals make decisionsoShould focus on perception of severity of punishment instead of perception of certaintyPunishment Avoidance Punishment not applied to you or someone and thus escaped punishment Vicarious Deterrence Know somebody who did get caught so wont engage in same behaviourPersonal specificgeneralvicarious dpersonalvicarious pacancellingout effectResetting and Gamblers FallacyoExperienced offenders reset perception of certainty of punishment to a lower rateoGamblers Fallacy Gamblers losing wont stop since assumption losing was bad luckoSame with crime experienced arent deterred because reset their certainty of punishment to a lower rate thinking theyll get away next timeBeccarias Rational Choice TheoryoPeople have free will behaviour explained by hedonism receive pleasure avoid painoThey choose to commit crime because it pays after weighing pros and consoPainful punishments counterbalance the pleasure of committing crimesoWere all motivated offenders were no different from criminals since were all criminalsoGiven the right motivation were all motivated offenders even lawabiding citizensRationalChoice Theory oEnlightenment Reason vs Passion binary oppositesoInstrumental Crime vs Expressive CrimeoRational Designed to improve financialsocial position Ex white collar crime or burglary vs crimes of passion nonrational people Ex violence murderoDeterrence can prevent instrumental but not expressive since no rational frame of mindoImplication using binary opposites and every choice is rational even if its notContemporary Rational Choice TheoryoLawviolating behaviour is an eventoCrime pays economic profit in engaging crime not the heartoAssumption that unless punishment people will assume crime paysRoutines Activities TheoryoExamines structure of criminal opportunity founded in everyday routine activitiesoCriminal routine activity burglars shaped by activity of victims Ex Whitby 911AMoOffender Search Theory Routine of potential offenders and how they search their victimsoIf home doingfamily activities less likely a victim if out alonestrangermore likelyoAssumptionsFamily is a protective factorProgress Socialtechnological process lead new criminal opportunities phoneProgress in society related to ineffective deterrence Hard having deterrent effect when socialtechnological process give new things to stealoIncreased crime rates because ofIncrease in suitable targets more things to stealvalueDecrease in guardian presence pets citizens technologyalarmslocksMotivated offenders criminal inclinationcapable hedonism rational actorsoTarget Hardening Strategy Making it harder to steal lock housecar prevent theftoTarget Reduction Strategy Reduce value of targetcrime Ex remove car radiooPolicy Implications crime prevention strategiesCrime Prevention Through Environmental Design CPTEDReduce criminal opportunities by changing societies designDefensible space people would defend spaces they cared about Ex lawnEx Young and Dundas putting tress would interfere with natural surveillanceBroken windows theoryIncrease effort needed to commit crimeDecrease reward for committing crimeIncrease risk of formal sanctions or punishmentIncrease risk of informal sanctionsoReducing crime causes displacementTemporal perpetrate crimes at lessrisky timesTarget Go for easier targetsSpatial Go to lessprotected area with less guardiansType of crime Perpetrate one crime instead of anotherTactical Change tactics to get around security measuresSituational crime preventionCPTED not effective because of 5 displacementsoDeterrenceRoutine Activities Theory Ex Stealing a MacBook in the library wont because were York students and dont want to jeopardize our futureLecture 4Lombroso is the father of criminology positivistCesare LombrosooHuman behaviour is a function of externalinternal forces beyond individual controloSome are social wealthsocial class and internal psychologicalbiologicaloCriminal behaviours are determined by socialbiologicaleconomic causes beyond their own control vs free willrational choice assumes we choose to engage
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