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Chapter 3 - Exam Review Questions.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1745
Robin Metcalfe

NATS1745 60 History of Astronomy FallWinter 2011Chapter 3 Exam Review1 According to the textbook what was it about Ancient Greece that enabled its philosophers to theorize about why the sky moves the way it does as opposed to just using it for tracking time and astrologyAncient Greece enabled its philosophers to theorize about why the sky moves the way it does as opposed to just using it for tracking time and astrology because a Greek diver found underwater what turned out to be the first computer a clockwork mechanism which was used to predict precisely the positions of the Sun and the Moon in the sky along with eclipses and the most momentous of celestial sights This object they found had circular gear wheels which reflected the idea that everything in the sky moves around in circular paths because the heavens are the home of perfection and a circle is the ideal shape Therefore the Greeks started to believe celestial bodies were moved by something in their own nature and not by gods and goddesses 2 Why is Thales called the Father of Science According to legend what celestial event did he successfully predict in order to prove his philosophyThales is called the Father of Science because he attempted to find explanations for natural phenomena that didnt involve gods He made his first accurate prediction of a total solar eclipse on May 28 585BC3 What did Anaximander believe about the EarthAnaximanderiSet the Earth afloat in airDeveloped the 1st moving model of the Universe in which the motion of the celestial bodies is explained by placing them on spinning wheels around Earth4 What was Pythagoras proposing when he called the Universe a cosmos What did he propose about the shape of planetary orbitsPythagoras was proposing when he called the Universe a cosmos that musical pitch is determined by the length of the instrument which is a harmonious system that obeys knowable laws He proposed that the shape of planetary orbits are perfectly circular and that the Earth is a sphere5 Who proposed that the Earth is round Describe 3 observations that suggest thisPythagoras proposed the Earth is round 3 observations that suggest this are 1 Ships gradually disappear on the horizon bottomfirst2 Earths shadow on the eclipsed moon is always round3When you travel North or South the constellations rise and set more rapidly than they would if Earth was flat6 What did Philolaus believe about the Earth What did this belief explain about the skyPhilolaus Set the Earth in motion by allowing Earth to rotate once per day around a central fire the daily motion of the celestial bodies was explained this explains the daily rising and setting of the sky7 What did Herakleides believe about the EarthHerakleidesiWith no reports from travellers of the central fire he removed it and set Earth spinning daily around its own axis8 What did Herakleides believe about the motion of Mercury and Venus and whyHerakleides placed MercuryVenus in orbit around the Sun to explain the Suncentered appearance of their motion
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