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Midterm Exam Review (2010-2011)

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Natural Science
NATS 1760
Darrin Durant

NATS 1760A Midterm Exam Notes Exam is out of 100 PointsA Basics Complete 5 of 7 questions 20 Points 4 Points for Each Question Knowledge and UnderstandingTheoretical Readings Week 2 The social dimensions of science and technology KleinmanScience is PoliticalTechnology is SocialThere are controversial incidences involving science and technologyBy invoking our personal insecurity and feelings we start to forget the basic of society norms As citizens we often forget our own limits Therefore we forget how to drawinformation from real experts Kleinman introduces scientism inherent divide between facts and values andtechnological progressivism inhibits the ability of citizens to view science and especially technology as reasonable subjects for widerange public debate as the two factors making difficult for us to think critically about science and technology Kleinman argues that technology is embedded in societal values and technoscience ispolitical FullerIntroduction Differences between knowledge and powerFullerKuhn and Popper A Case of Mistaken IdentitiesPolitical questions and technical questions are confusing society for each otherIdea that involves valued conflicts are used to settle political disputesThe ideal sense of solving societal issues is to have different opinions of experts from different fields of study However some issues require a combined force of experts to solve such issuesExperts from different communities draw boundaries that give these experts a sense of specialization in a particular section of their expertiseThere are many aspects of science and technology that is controversial in many ways When boundaries are not clear opinions of experts and nonexperts are mixed togetherWe can debate in discussions but action is required for decisionsFuller introduces paradigm exemplary piece of research and blueprint for future researchArgues that scientists are testing scientific theories for any validity Kuhns Structureblueprints and Poppers Positivism accountability Week 3 Trust honesty and the authority of Science ShapinTrust Honesty and the Authority of Science Theories are usually proven or disproven through scientific or conventional datacollection Data can be interpreted in many different ways at any event and at any time Alternative theories can be developed if the original theory is proved and disproved atthe same time Theories have some annoying functions that may frustrate scientistsMost of our facts come from scientists But how accurate or truthful are these factsHaving ethical experts with moral authority can combat onesided scientific decisions FullerDo we believe by evidence or by decision A short history of epistemologyThere will always be observations that will not match to what was originally hypothesized in contrast to prophecy which predicts a future event in a vague wayFuller argues that the problem of knowledge led to scientists testing scientific theories
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