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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

3 course theories: Technological determinism: a viewpoint of where technology as a prime agent of social and organizational change. Even though humans had created technology, it is technology that defines how we interact with one another. According to Helibroner, he explains that determinists believe technological change follows a rough sequence of development and forces social characteristics upon a society. The idea that technology is the cause of social, political, cultural and economic change is the main reason in determinists theories of technological change. Technology as applied science: claims that science and technology are connected with one another and basic scientific research can find new technologies. In the 20 th century, science and technology was done by different sets of people w/ different norms and values within their established communities. 2 examples are Project Hindsight and TRACES. Hindsight was a US development of defense that looked at the development of military defense system where researchers found 0.3% of events were basic science, 8.7% was applied science and the 91% was technological origin. Project TRACES is a national science foundation where VCRs, contraceptives, electron microscope all rooted to the basic scientific research. Necessitiy is the mother of invention: new technologies were created by someone in order to fulfill a need that exists in society. Example: Windmills were introduced to England in 1185 but
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