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Exam Review.docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Exam Review Part I. Multiple Choice Questions 60 Questions (each worth .5 marks = 30 marks total) Most of the multiple choice questions will be based on the lectures and notes, but a few will be directly from your course readings. These readings include those by Sismondo, Kranzberg, Hong, Merchant, and Rosenberg and Misa (Chapters 1 through 5) Chapter 1:  Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Part II. Short Answer Questions 3 Questions (each worth 10 marks = 30 marks total) Answer 3 of 5 Questions based on following 4 topics: 1. Course theories and themes (2 questions):  Hybrid Humans: Interested in both science and technology 2. Scientific Management:  substitution of science for individual judgment  scientific selection of workmen  greater cooperation between management and workers  work should be governed by scientific laws  believed traditional working knowledge gave laborers unfair advantage over management  management should acquire more knowledge through time studies so that “brain work” removed from shop floor and placed within planning department  information produced in planning department then presented to worker in written order  foreman would then be replaced by series of man  workers would be paid according to incentive wage system that rewarded them only if they men production standard that was determined scientifically  also, scientific management was initially opposed by BOTH workers and management  until WWI, lots of worker strikes; protests by American Federation of Labor  management also does not want to share profits with workers or increase their wages  also owners don’t want to invest so heavily in new personnel departments  until 1920’s very few companies actually implement strategies 3. Patents: 4. Ford and Mass Production: a. Early Years - interchangeable parts and mass production really come together with Ford - changes took place in 1908-1915 - important to focus on changes in factory and machine design AND labor - 1906 experiments began on Model T car and completed by 1908: “car for the masses” - one piece, twenty horsepower, magneto fired engine - simple design and easy to repair, inexpensive - reduction in price: car costs $825 when average price for other cars around $1800; by 1912-13 cost around $613, later years would be $230 - Ford not first to develop automobile; however, in Europe, automobiles seen as toy for rich – elitist mentality – market that people had in mind - Ford had vision that car should be in every person’s garage - never took out profits from company; put them back into production - high skilled mechanics in company were free to experiment in areas like machine tool design and placement, fixture design, gauging, factory layout, quality control and materials handling - prior to mass production: previously purchased parts put together by teams of workmen in three story plant until 1905 b. Ford and ASM - Ford forms own manufacturing company in 1905 with financial wiz James Couzens and starts manufacturing parts - in manufacturing plant, Ford hires Walter E. Flanders who was a machine tool salesman; had previously worked for Singer - helps show Ford the links between buying materials, production, selling - around this time, Ford begins to see importance of interchangeability - uniform parts essential to produce a high volume of goods; benefits of single or special purpose machine tools - Ford Motor Company starts taking off in 1907 - Flanders leaves but not before information passed on to Ford - team of gifted mechanics now responsible for Model T effort; had to keep up with increasing demand - P.E. Martin and Charles Sorenson were responsible for this increased production - Emphasized operations sheets: detailed machining operations on various parts, needed material inputs, tools, fixtures and gauges and factory layout - began to rearrange machine tools in sequence - used knowledge from other manufacturing sectors and applied them to automobile industry (i.e. Sorenson recommended that crank cases be made via stamping techniques rather than casting methods because of experiences in bicycle plants) - VIII. Ford and General Motors - unchanging Model T concept gives way to need for variety by 1920’s - “search for novelty” - annual model changes brought forth by Ford’s competitor, Alfred B. Sloan Jr. and General Motors - William Knudsen, former Ford employee becomes Chevrolet’s President; resigned from Ford Motor Company because Ford overrode many of his decisions - in 1921, Ford has 55% of market share; by 1926, 30% - end of Model T run in 1927 - GM: sell cars whose features changed annually; style and comfort
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