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Final Exam Nats Review.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Final Exam Nats Review Part I. Short Answer Questions 3 Questions (each worth 8 marks = 24 marks total) Answer 3 of 3 Questions based on following topics: 1. Science, Technology and WWI th - Best way to describe WWI: 20th century war fought with 19 century tactics - Strategies for war remained traditional - Machine gun - Naval technologies—Strong navies in Britain - Science and technology developments didn’t ensure victory for everyone - Tech. helped in the battle, but not in war itself - The German U-Boat - Alternative British devices to track the U-Boats—Bring boats together - Land and air weapons - Nazi’s ahead in scientific technology i.e. aviation - US could not compete with technological advances in Germany - The Blitz Creek: Tactical attack against Nazi enemies 2. Science, Technology and WWII - National Defense Research Council (1940) - Fund big business, industries and other industries that have good track records in scientific technology - Hitler’s desire to make a perfect Iranian race. - Cancer research aim germ and disease free world - Openhimer: Supporter of atomic bomb, accused of being soviet spy, did not support making a bigger and better atomic bomb after WW2 - Hydrogen bomb, political leadership had interest in creating this bomb, - Downfall: Could not experiment with it, could it be built? (H bomb) - Moral and ethical issues - US convinced they had to build H bomb before soviet union did - Research lead by Openhimer who was not a supporter - GAC concluded not to build an H bomb 3. Historic Genetic Engineering Controversies - Race to find the structure of DNA - Key to understanding human, plant and anithl existence - Most important discovery of the 20 century - Linus Pauling (USA) - Rossalind Franklin & Wilkins (University of London) - Misunderstanding between Franklin and Wilkins - Franklin and Wilkins approach – x-ray crystallography - Created A set and B set of photos Wilkins wants to work on one set, Franklin the other (Franklin not taken seriously by Wilkins - Male dominated field, Franklin one of the few female scientists during this period. - UOL exclusive to males for social access, Franklin excluded from social places to gain/share scientific knowledge - Crick = Physicist Watson = Phage Geneticist (worked together on DNA) - 3D model building - Close proximity between Franklin/ Wilkin and Watson/Crick - Over time Watson, Crick and Wilkins became friends - Two teams worked in teams in Britain, In the USA Lincus was thought to had discovered DNA, but this was not the exact structure but on the right track. - Proposed DNA looked like a helix - Published in Nature (1953) and noble prize in 1962, shared with Wilkins (Franklin died of Cancer) - Franklins work looked secondary to Watson, Wilkins and Cricks work Part II. Long Answer Question 3 Questions (46 marks total) Answer 3 of 3 questions based on the following topics: 1.How users shape new technologies (Communication tech lectures from telephone to internet) Radio - Supply and demand - Case study: Relationship between introduction of FM radio and development of television Shows: Although a technology maybe superior does not mean technology wins out on the market place - Need to develop a mainstream technical standard - Political + Corporate decisions on the success or failure of new technologies - FM radio: Edwin Armstrong , 1933, better system then AM (AM radio: Amplitude modulation) Television - Commercial televisions produced in the 1950s - Patent dispute, john beard, Farnsworth, Vladimir - RCA is involved in both Television and Radio - Farnsworth (14yr old inventor) invented cathode ray tube - Zworkin submitted TV patent - TV began in late 1800’s and commercial TV began in 1950’s - ―The Golden Age of TV‖ - RCA - Use electrons to create a TV image - In 1923 Zworkin creates a TV system - Internalist Approach: New technologies may lie idle for years before coming into use - Television ran different discourses in Great Britain compared to the United States - Technology was socially determined Telephone - Social Uses of phone: Users re-shaping technology - Social Determinism - Marketers/vendors believed phone should only be used for practical/emergency purposes - Discouraged sociability - Most phone lines were shared lines, so got tied up if people were on for too long, so discouraged usage. - Old and new technologies had very firm ideas of usage, should be used like a telegraph: only for emergency purposes - Telegraph users paid by word. - Over 30% of calls made were for sociability - Women who lived in isolated/rural areas in need of communication - Phone industry changes mind in the 1920’s - Wanted a variety of ways of use. - Long-distance is introduced, makes a lot of money. - Introduces new products and phone deals to consumers - In the 1940’s idea of socialbil
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