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Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

NATS Reading Exam 1 Sismondo Reading –Two Questions Concerning Technology (Pg 3) 1. Is TechnologyApplied Science • Technology as applied science means technology is driven by scientific discoveries - This theory states that science and technology are connected in the sense that basic scientific research has the ability to find new technologies • However, technology is more than just science - There is knowledge besides that of science involved to the development of technology, technology has no limitations and therefore its development it not a matter of just science • Francis Bacon & Rene Descartes say that useful technology is a result of scientific research however the little relationship there is between science and technology is evidently shifting • Historically science and technology were not connected because they were different fields and new technological inventions had little to no science behind them - Example (pg 3) project hindsight in the 1960s was the study of key event leading to the development of 20 weapon systems and this project concluded that 91% was technological, 8.7% applied science and 0.3% basic science this showing that technology is not just applied science - This proved that the direct involvement and influence of science on technology was small even with an institution that was heavily invested in science • In the first industrial revolution prior to the 20 century science and technology were still far apart • In the second industrial revolution there was a true connection • “Science owes more to the steam engine than the steam engine owes to science” - This is because as an artifact production it is said that aeronautical engineering is separate from science and that these engineers only referred to scientific results when they needed to but their work was not driven by science or not the application of science , engineers develop their own mathematics and experimental results • Edwin Layton says that even though the idea of technology as applied science is fast spreading and becoming universal but still individual technologies can’t be seen dependent on basic science because technological knowledge is downplayed and less important NATS Reading Exam 2 - Engineers participate in knowledge traditions and so science doesn’t own technological knowledge because it is not as important as science *********How science and technology relate? (Second Industrial Revolution)!!!!! • In the modern era technology is a result of applied science • Techno science draws attention to the increasing interdependence of science and technology and so techno science is the reason for science and technology coming together • Now science draws on technology for its instruments and also for some of its models of knowledge • Technologists need a combination of scientific and technological knowledge as well as social, material, financial and rhetorical resources 2. Does Technology Drive History? • There is a number of different technological determinisms but the central idea if that technological changes force social adaptations - Example (pg 6): the hand-mill required a work force of fully skilled and semi skilled craftsmen who could work at home if they wanted and the steam mill required semi-skilled or unskilled operatives who could work at factory site and only on strict time • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel-technological determinists • Technological determinism- material forces and properties of technology structure society • Technological changes force social adapting • Class structure is based on dominating technologies, therefore technology is what shapes economic choices • Technology having essential features that is provided from these technologies is the reason for their systematic effects that makes the social structure of a society - No essential features would mean no systematic effects and no influence on society NATS Reading Exam 3 • No technology is limited to one specific use-example watches, look attractive, tell time, helps schedule effectively • Social forces have a variation of dominating roles in making technology a success or failure • “knowledge and human power are synonymous” –page 8, p6 • Technology and history have the same impact, history would be nothing without technology and technology is nothing without history Kranzberg Reading –Technology and History: Kranzberg’s Laws (Pg 11) First Law: Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral. - Technology is responsible for numerous improvements in society. Such as improvements in efficiency and communication. - Technology has negative impacts such as piracy and privacy risks. E.g. Social networking Positive 1. Keeping in touch with people from high school or people who you haven’t seen in while 2. New ways to communicate 3. Makes sharing information easier Negative 1. Loss of privacy because people can take your pictures and use it in ads without your permission 2. Employment risk- if you are applying for a job or is in the job and you have something inappropriate on your account it could lead your job at risk E.g 2 Mobile phones Positive 1. Easy access to information 2. Navigation tools- find places on the go 3. Productivity tools – different software’s Negative 1. Pay for data plans 2. Upgrade when the new phone comes out 3. Texting and driving NATS Reading Exam 4 - It can not be considered neutral because they are both important  It is impossible to consider which one is more powerful because there are many different perspectives  There are many reasons why technology can be seen positive or negative Second Law: Invention is the mother of necessity - Invention is created in order to solve problems or current issues  Disease creates a need for more effective medicine cold temperatures create the need for heating system and home installations materials. So if society finds a need to solve a problem, it often results in an invention.  Kranzberg states every technical innovation seems to require additional technological advances in order to make it fully effective. - E.g. the automobile is a prime example of how invention can spawn the need for a new or improved technology such as petroleum products, suspension systems, tires, and tools to work on engines.  One can see the large scale adoption of the automobile resulting in auxiliary technologies such as stop lights, parking meters, roads and highways, these were created based on that one invention.  As alternative fuel sources are explored fuel cell technology continues to be a strong contender as a substitute or a supplement of petroleum gas products the development, refinement and implementation of this new technology will not be the end of the development process  It will require new types of breaking system and improvements to the efficiency of power sources.  In addition to these developments a need for continued research into fuels that run the vehicles and a need for storage and distribution of the fuels and parts for the vehicles Which came first? The chicken or the egg debate  His critiques argue that spin- off inventions were created because there was a need, Kranzberg contends that it is the basic invention which stimulates the need of a auxiliary innovations that indeed inventions is the mother of necessity Third Law: Technology comes in packages, big and small. - Two different points of views:  Technology is revolutionary (big) or evolutionary (small) - Technology that is big refers a function of society - Technology that is small doesn’t redefine a function of society but enhances that certain features - Small technology can refer to subsystem that when put together it creates a system or a big technology NATS Reading Exam 5  Revolutionary technology refers to BIG that redefined a function of society  E.g. Internet – Information, communication, social networking  Mobile devices- access to the internet  Evolutionary (Small) that enhances a function of a society  E.g. Shazam- (enhances the identifying and buying process) gives users a unique way to find out what song is playing if they are not familiar with the song name and this leads people to buying the song  E.g. 2 Evernote- (enhances the note taking process) is a note taking process which allow you to take pictures of notes without having to write it down in your notebook  Subsystem (a self-contained system within a larger system) example. Microsoft  One subsystem does not fully serve a but a subsystem that is put together can like adding PowerPoint, word, excel, office and etc. by putting only one program in Microsoft wont satisfy consumers so by putting more it will  Coming together to makes a system  Technology that is small can be subsystem of a big system which created can serve all need of the end users  Small technology enhances the function of technology in society  Big technology changes the actual function of society Fourth Law:Although technology might be a prime element in many public issues, nontechnical factors take precedence in technology-policy decisions. - Technology has reached every part of our society even our problems - When society views public issues the focus is on the technical parts when there are changes to policies - Politics takes precedence in most decisions  Reason: Policy changes differ to something that is more stable like political factors which great of change isn’t as great as the rate of change of technology. The rate of change of technology is hard for policy to keep up so that is why that technology factors get differed and non technical factors take precedence Fifth Law:All history is relevant, but the history of technology is the most relevant. – because of the contributions it has made to mankind NATS Reading Exam 6 Historians write highly about the historical understand of technology by civilized people Many people don’t see the relevance of history to the present or to there future because history is ignored the technological element - History ignores the technological elements  Example: Electricity, because of electricity the Internet works and all the other technologies. Technology has changed t
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