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Exam Notes Women and Work.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Exam Notes Women and Work Globalization, Labour Force Participation and the Gender Gap By: Theresa Devasahayam - The impact of global economies are driven by cross border capital movements, rapid technology , communication and information - Asian economies went too far and too fast in pursuing globalization - Over reliance on external demand which reduced poverty rates - Gender inequality; women become liberated through work but still face gender wage gaps, gender segregation, patriarchal rule/ authority, part-time work. - Women are reproduced as a liberated precarious worker; their work is not seen as the ideal form of labour. Most these women do not have education due to hegemonic authority - Women experience forms of discrimination where they experience cross cutting practices. - THIS REPRODUCES THE BREAD WINNER IDEOLOGY, HEGEMONY, PATRAIARCHY and PRECARIOUS LABOUR Double Jeopardy By: Anibel Ferus- Comelo - First part explores reasons for the apparent preferential employment of young, migrant women in electronics manufacturing, arguing that this is mainly due to the corporate search for ever-greater flexibility and productivity - Second part show that this emphasis on flexible production, which has proven to be an effective corporate strategy, in practice frequently violates workers’ fundamental rights - Third section presents some examples of the response from workers and labor organizations. - Feminization/ migration for flexible , cheap labor - Employees are exploited, work long hours for low wages in unbearable conditions. - Modern day slavery - Women often work overtime, with no security and fatigue because women are often over worked. This is considered “slave work” - There is a pyramid shape corporate where men are on top and women lead the bottom roles - Preference of young migrant women in manufacturing because men are presumed to be in dominate roles - Men are seen as flexible and made for corporations, this violates women. - Women are seen to be unskilled, therefore pushed into the manufacturing of electronics - Though women are liberated through work and may be paid more in manufacturing labour they do experience economic insecurity - THIS REPRODUCES FEMINIZATION OF WORK, MASCULINE VS FEMINIEN WORK, UNSKILLED vs. SKILLLED LABOUR and HEGEMONIC MASCULINITY. • Ex: China Blue; Living Factory - Workers worked all night - School was not valued - People get fake ID’s to be able to work, if you don’t have an idea you will be fired - Workers are policed through supervisors and cameras - Poor housing and health care - Workers lie about their positions to remain in work - 12 girls share a bedroom - The deduct money out of pay for food - The little time they have to rest they end up doing chore these women often work 10-12 HOURS A DAY From cheap labor and export-oriented industrialization to the gendered political economy approach – By: Joekes • Feminization of certain jobs, de-electronic industry • ISI= Import substitution industrialization • EOI = Export oriented industrialization • Labor-intensive sector • Reproduction and marriage are two main things that employers try to avoid when hiring men, but women are easier to control • EOI favors labor-intensive sectors and therefore these two theories hire more women • Globalization: Affect on this gender market, feminized labor market, • Internationalization: • Three different dimensions: economic globalization, political globalization, cultural globalization • Understand the link to globalization and liberal policies • Neoliberalism Industrial Revolution  Indust/mech  Capitalism  Neoliberial policy - Discourse of the market: analysis, discussion, questions about a particular subject - How the market is affecting these things Globalization: • New? Or representation of a larger historical of economic development starting with imperialism/economic development starting with imperialism / colonization AND MOVING FORWARD DEBATE • Different from INTERNATIONALIZATION because it involves a deeper economic and cultural connections Neoliberal policies - Neoliberal polices and support of free trade and export led developments supports globalization model Free trade is key to globalization - Can’t talk about this without globalization Economic globalization 1) How it involves global production 2) Commodity change. Ex. Garment industry and electronic industry 3) TNS that given way to value + commodity chains 4) SCALES OF PRODUCTION – subcontracting 5) CHAIN OF HIEARCY^^ 6) Technology, neoliberal and global finance reproduces and enforces this 7) Technology did not bring on globalization 8) Globalization brought on technology 9) Global finance is both international and institutional- the way a small population, the projection of needs and worth Supply Chains 1) Ex. China blue and readings of that week 2) Gottfried – supply chains – pyramid like structures of factory 3) International structures but also local structures of hierarchy. Ex. Precarious work and poor work in Bangladesh and India 4) -Top of pyramid- power /brand 5) Middle- middle manager factory, subcontractors, home workers Bottom – manufacture worker Gendered MIGRANT Filipina domestic workers…. - Social consequences of migrant work - Leaving families, traveling to westernized countries to care for children or elderly - Three tier system - Privilege woman – migrant woman – domestic workers in the Filipinas Cons o Many married women with a family don’t make enough to maintain their family in the same industrialized country which they work o Family separation o Emotional distress, loneliness, sadness, depression o High level of education, but still considered unskilled workers o Work is more exhausting vs. work in the Philippines o Aggravated from racial, class and citizenship inequalities o Can be professionals in their own country however they won’t be paid a fair salary Pros o Earn more money as domestic workers o Increase class status in the Philippines Migration: Care and Labour 1) They come under the guise of economic success and liberation from oppressive nations states 2) Explicit racial and class based dimensions 3) You can link this to subcontracting work to garment and electronic factory work 4) Factory work is cheaper in countries like china 5) Very expensive to have a Canadian nanny as opposed to a Pilipino one Discourse of the Market: - Power of global finance market to shape economy - Where we are now - Have affect of creating /promoting global market disciple - Power of global markets shaping us - Power of small markets effecting larger economies - Very small populations , where we facilitate and trend larger global economies - ^ Have the effect of creating and reproducing global market - Crittue: it is not beneficial, it creates deeper inequalities - NEOLIBERALAGNEDA^^ state over sees your needs. - THE BIGGER THE BETTER> GLOBAL IS BETTER - TIES INTO AUSTERITY: neoliberal programs/policies imposed on a country experiencing debt - ^ they turn to banks for help which puts them more in debt - The world bank creates issues of lowering min wage, funds and increases productivity , redefine pension, age and eligibility - A shift in this program; they may receive loans from other countries. Ex Canada gives Mexico money put creates EPZ zones for them to manufacture LULU lemon pants … there is always a catch to loans - Benefit is this trade usually involves precarious work exchange IS THIS POSITIVE/ NEGATIVE 1) Especially looking at its effects on gender relations use a lot of political gender economy --- SOCIAL REPRODUTION 2) Social reproduction: Always gendered class and raced it is always gendered . Where people perform certain work as extensions of social production and reproduce public and private spheres (INTERSECTIONALITY) These gendered courses affect women in NEGATVIVE ways in the global north and global south 1) Nobody wins in this space 2) Social construction of occupations, value of work , who does what 3) RACE AND CLASS COME INTO PLAY A LOT 4) CLEAR LINKS AND ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN RACE CLASS AND GENDER 5) How global masc. and fem. Is reproduced. Hyper masculine jobs vs. feminine jobs 6) We see how this effects gender institutions. The “Other” side of The Legal Regulation of Globalization – Cross Border Movements By: Ratna Kapur • The current moment of globalization is witnessing an extraordinary movement of people legitimate , illegitimate across national and international borders • Hegemonic history =power =colonialism • Transnational subaltern subject: in the context of colonialism where it constructs work and the system of bodies. • Globalization acts like colonialism where it takes over and controls bodies • Fixed borders of the nations • Migrations is a global economy • International legal orders creates migration dilemmas • The system of uniformity reinforces laws of the nation state • Females are e not recognized as a part of the global economy but is considered as reproductive labour ( similar to colonialism) • Women are casted as victims , incapable of decision making, or consenting, sexual deviants that disrupt moral and social fabric in Kapur, India • Push or Pull ideology: Where these women are impelled by economic pushes and are pulled into criminalizing, trafficking and penalizing work • Women are more attractive when illegal because they are constrained to the system and she is socially and economically dependant • These women are vulnerable to exploitative and forced labour ( poor work conditions, often in sex trafficking, violence, abuse) • IN ALL Kapur argues that migrants are bothered and they often migrate for economic change. They cross borders illegally and travel restricted and dangerous routes in hope for a better life • REPRODUCES; AGENCY, ANTI TRAFFICKING DISCOURSE, ISSUE OF CHOICE, STRATEGY, ECONOMIC DEPENDANCE, COLONIAL INFLUENCE ON WORK, GENDERED WORK. Globalization and Multiple Crises of Care By: Mary K Zimmerman - Women move to sustain jobs, this creates an issue of immigrants being visible. - Globalization influences the traditional work of unpaid labour - Care workers who migrate often have to find care workers for their families - The commodifcation of care is exploitative - Supranational organizations structure and polices care work arrangements ( big business) - Intensifying global stratification systems based on race class and gender creates a growing gap between poor and rich nations - Paid and unpaid labour is commodified - Employers downgrade workers by relocating their home - Paid work is shifted from public to somewhat private - Women choose to migrate for complex reasons such as family decisions, economic necessity, and sometimes coercion and deception. - This also creates a work transfer where women who are upper-class in one country may become lower class in another due to migration of work. EX: nannies, nanny visa - Race and class resort to migration - REPRODUCES; FEMININE WORK, GLOBAL APARTIED, CARE WORK BEING A BUISNESS FEMALE DOMESTICS, AND GLOBAL STRATIFCAITON - Establishes race inequities among white women and domestic workers that are hired (usually women of colour. - race and class are a resort to migration “ “Migrant Filipina Domestic Workers and the International Division of Reproductive Labour” Parrenas: 1) Acknowledges that wage work can help raise ones class status 2) Women in the Philippines migrate to Canada as caregivers, can send money back to their family to increase their class status in their home country 3) Demonstrates how family ties become dysfunctional because of distance relationships 4) social consequences of Migrant Work 5) Example: Emotional ties to their family back home can be disrupted 6) Have to care, and show love for the family back home and the one they are paid to care for. 7) The Live-in care giver program (LCP) is a 24/7 job that is physically and emotionally draining “Migrant and Globalization Care Work:” Gabriel: - Gabriel; solution to care crises and nurse shortages - Nurses are paid more, have an educational background (degree) and are respected more than domestic workers - Unlike the LCP, the internationally educated nursing (IEN) program allows women to become citizens easier because western society needs these workers. - Influx of the elderly population creates a need for IEN workers Precarious employment Vosko - Gender wage cap - Self employment - Part-time vs. full-time - Dimensions of labour market mainly women in the part-time sphere well men in the full- time positions - Women are becoming liberated from entering the public sphere, but because of precarious employment they are still privatized. So well they are able to become economically stable they still make significantly lower wages than man and security issues (lay off’s, easily fired, pushed back into the private sphere) - Colonial ideologies create the structure of masculine and femine work. - Precarious work is temporary, contract, unsteady income Wal-Mart By: Barbara Ehrenreich - Care work as a commodifcation = capitalism - Slave work like conditions - Commodity Fetishism: Ascribing value to objects and things based on a presumed value in the capitalist market - Issue: giving social objects (care) a social value, not understanding the proper terms of social underpinnings - We see unskilled work as an issue, where women do
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