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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1840
Ian Slater

th Jan 12 2013 NATS 1840 – Lecture 1 –Anthropomorphic Extinctions in the Late Quarternary Human Impact on the Environment Green space, pollution, extinction Causes of extinction, removal of habitat, predators Evidence for extinction, evidence for causes Martin’s Thesis – Anthropogenic Sources of Extinction Many large mammals became extinct in the last 50 000 years ( “near time”, Quarternary period) Approximately half of 200 genera of large mammals (100 lb +) lost Almost all extinctions of wild animals in last 50,000 anthropogenic Extinction not only recent, not solely due to advanced science or technology Human migration to new continents, islands, large and small mammals and birds “Overkill” thesis, excessive predation, introduction of predators, competitors and disease vectors TheAdvancement of Science New theories, new technologies, new evidence Radio-carbon dating, precise estimation of extinction dates Scientific work and new evidence Radio-carbon dating within a few hundred years, sudden or gradual extinction Extinctions correlate with spread of humanity Correlation and cause Competing Explanations Extinctions and sudden climatic changes No direct evidence for human hunting 50,000 years ago Africa and Eurasia, co-evolution and fewer extinctions No evidence for sudden catastrophe Extinctions in the late Quarternary Conclusions Responsibility of ancient peoples for extinctions, global involvement Knowledge of extinctions Realistic idea of human impact, sympathy with large mammals Jan 13 Lecture Agriculture Agriculture developed approximately 10000 years ago Growing of crops in large amounts and the domestication of animals, used for leather, body parts, food etc. must save water and irrigate crops throughout year to allow to grow: artificial irrigation Artificial irrigation, food surplus, higher populations, early government. Food supply is low: population is low = thus more food, must distribute food through govt to who will get this food. Save flood water = smaller concentration. Occurred in all parts of the world at different times “hydrological hypothesis”: civilization arose from the development of large-scale irrigation agriculture When societies start to use water on a small scale (irrigation) leads you to a bureaucratic govt from this process of large scale food irrigation. Causes large scale bureaucracies. The technology causes this Large scale irrigation agriculture, centralized coordination through govt and canals for management, storage and distribution Civilization rose at different times because of large scale technology you get a large scale bureaucrat, by the choices of technology you take Urbanization and division of labour, specialized job outside of agriculture, as more and more food is increased, less need for farmers as there are too many, there is a greater diversity of positions by the irrigation of agriculture Creation of cities, administration, crafts, trade and labour dominated, different types of jobs arose as too many farmers. Class diversification Agriculture leads to cities Priests were first administrators and rulers. Need math and literarcy to undestand how the season would progress through the formation of the calendar Urbanization, class differentiation, slaves, labourers and citizens. Some with wealth and no wealth. Slavery emerged as couldn’t leave the nomatic community China China ahead in technology, behind in natural philosophy Responsible for many technology advancements, not in terms of science China was isolated by mountains, deserts and steppes. Physically isolated location and cut of at the bored by mountains etc. th th Sung dynasty (10 -13 century) rice agriculture, increasing population with less water Population spiked (estimated at 115-123 million), shifted south, urbanization increased (to 20% of population), leisured middle class arose around trade and commodity labor. Early trade and exchange arose Large-scale centralized bureaucratcie run by one empire, controlled every city and village in the country Government Centralized authority in emperor, Emperor T’ai-tsu (960-976), Sung Dynasty (960-1279) economic, cultural & political growth. Growth in extension of population, culturally, economically etc Authority transfer from hereditary power to a meritocracy, standardized civil service. Meritocracy: Perform and if you do, and on your level, you pass the exam and move on to the govt, hire employees based on performance Divided through Bureaus, departments, supervisors, political power Merchant classes controlled by state, government industry and resources th 12 century China: 50,000 km of waterways and canals, 1100 mile Grand Canal (longest). Large scale engineers. Keeps civilians busy to avoid questioning the status quo Hydrological engineering crossed land boundaries, reinforced centralized state Large scale agriculture & trade, large scale state planning, trees, construction, manufacturing and ship industry. Billions of trees for long term planning Ceramics, textiles, paper, machinery invented Paper and block printing (8 century), movable type in 1040. Advanced technology Chinese Science and Philosophy Alchemical work, affinities, lead to the formation gunpowder, and determines your lifespan extension through gunpowder Charcoal, saltpeter (potassium nitrate), sulphur and arsenic (gunpowder) 9 cent., bombs and grenades, cannons and rockets by 10 century Pyrotechnics for celebrations, fumigation, and for medicinal purposes Math and astronomy, state support. as math is required to buy/sell etc. astronomy needed to figure out the seasons/calendar and later for navigation by the stars Practical mathematics, focused economic and engineering problems for grand canal and great wall of china No mathematical community, no societies to exchange ideas. Not on a large scale society Focused onAlgebra over geometry and trigonometry, Muslim mathematicians were hired for difficult math Accurate observational astronomy, observing/recording new stars, comets, eclipses for later further astronomers to report to as comets return Astronomy a state secret, transfers, children entering bureau as an astronomer Accurate meteorological data and agriculture. Close track of weather and how it would change Institutionalization of Science in China Confucius (551-479BC), neo-Confucian philosophy in Sung dynasty Confucian philosophy: family, ethics, just society, statecraft, submission to elders, respect authority, supported status quo Educational system standardized, curriculum of literary and moral learning Government exam system discouraged questioning authority Poetry, ethics, political histories and law, and some administrative problems Chinese civilization and foreign traditions No legal autonomy for guilds or societies, no professional organizations or guilds The Development of Chinese Science Centralization, critical inquiry, institutions: guilds, colleges, universities, etc. Bureaucracy and work in science and technology Government exams and natural philosophy, state support Craft knowledge and scholarly knowledge General scientific method, universal laws, logic, induction and deduction Confucian focus on ethics and social commitments over study and control of nature Science was institutionalized. Confucion was a philosopher focused on family, ethics, state crafts, respect, status quo. Traditonal and conservative. Standardized learning on literary and moral learning, no science. Enter govt, go through exams. Exam systems to not question the bureaucrat.All learning in china state was orientated around passing the civil service exam. No teachings on science and was not supported in earlier years. Did not reach out for other traditions, kept own traditions on own culture. No formal separation of state and church, emperor was a religious figure. No religious figures could stand up against the control of the state Science didn’t develop: 1) centralization of china avoided higher levels of education; 2) DESIRE OF JOINING BUREAUCRATCIE DREWATTention form other workforces thus avoiding tech and science. 3) govt didn’t involve any forms of science, didn’t require that knowledge, focused on other aspects. 4) scholars, artisans and craftsmen didn’t unite and slowed down 5) no attention on scientific method 6) Confucian focused on moral and ethics to live in a just society and respect family and the govt Bureaucracy: Irrigation, differentiation of classes, taxation, centralized govt.8 Technology gets you there through agriculture. Different times and placed, once tech is developed stuck with different types of govt. support use of nuclear power, endangers communities. No nuclear reactors and civil liberties is questioned. This type of tech gets you this type of govt. create more food, water, trees, creates more waste as population increases = each individual as an environmental footprint and increases each year as each consumes more stuff and more people. Even if you decreased the waste, the population is too large and impacts the environment Jan 15 NATS 1760 6.0 B – Lecture 4 – Dutch Hydraulic Engineering Medieval Dutch Hydraulic Engineering 1. European rainfall, thick, wet soil, iron–shod plough and oxen 2. Field rotation, crop, fallow, manure, population increase 3. Horse-collar, increased horse population through agriculture, cavalry, stirrups Hydraulic Engineering in Holland 4. Limited land for farming, vulnerable to starvation, risk of disease and warfare. Limited geography thus couldn’t grow enough food. 5. Holland below sea level, hydraulic engineering to create farmland/agriculture through drainage 6. Drainage of marshland/swamp using canals (dutch) 7. Reciprocal effect: draining one area led to flooding in another, draining led to lowering of land further below sea level. Once water increases, continue to dig deeper (land sublimation) 8. Simple technological developments and unexpected consequences 9. Flooded more often, unexpectedly Coordination and Control 10. 13th century: dikes (embankments to hold in water), dams (blocking rivers), sluices (canal with gates), and drainage canals (internal water out/external water in) 11. 1100 and 1300 - hundreds of dikes and dams 12. Excluding external water meant more flooding, less channels of water to exchange 13. Thud, dutch created Polders: units of land at the same water level with shared drainage system, labor and capital intensive 14. Created windmills once land is shrunk the furthest, it will pump the water out 15. System of autonomous water boards, predated government 16. No central co-ordination, taxes and public works local 17. The water boards were responsible for: regular inspection of facilities, recommending repair, supervising and organizing labour and materials, collecting taxes, dispute resolution 18. Management of problem, hydrological hypothesis, unintended consequences, technological fix, environmental changes 19. 20. Technological fix: drain swamps for agriculture, grow more food 21. Social: share food efficiently, reuse, recycle 22. How humans damage the environment 23. Jan 20th 2014 Lecture 4 - Science, Technology and Colonial Expansion 24. Science and technology, lead to colonial expansion th 25. 15 century Capitalism, sailing ships etc, international trade and European expansion, new resources and land. To expand territories started expanding and exploring the sea. 26. Technology (sailing ships, telescopes, clocks, and sextants improved navigation) and science (astronomy) and navigation (was limited), discovery of new lands by sailing, not knowing where they are going, and conquest, lead to colonialism 27. ASIDE: Technology and Navigation 1. Mathematical equations: time, distance, angle, longitude or latitude. (position of the stars can figure out location, use math…) (variables are unknown, determine the distance, angle of star in the star and input in equation) use sextants to determine angle. 2. Angles (sextants), direction (compass), position (telescopes, location of star), time (mechanical clock, when you left, are or where) 3. astronomical theory for longitude and langitude 28. important because Trade, conquest and colonization, lead to significant population shifts of our time, war and disease, (more ppl means more land (thus crossing sea), population grew, limit on agriculture, sailed across ocean and allowed to expand agriculture… environmental issues/causes) (many killed during this migration to claim populations/land) 29. Christopher Columbus, 1492, Francisco Pizzaro, 1532, arrived at Cajamarca, Peru… RECORDING… ambushed inca emporer, kidnpapped and killed him after stealing his money 30. Inca Emperor Atahuallpa, 168 against 80,000. Europeans brought firearms and scared the army. Locals had no guns. 31. Success attributed to efficiency and psychological impact of guns 32. 4-1/2 million sq km (Peru + Chile + Mexico + Ecuador), 504,782 sq kmSpain all concurred by the Spanish, increased land space by 5 times by doing so, allowed population to expand, gain resources and solve problems was the motivation to doing so. 33. Europeans advantages: Horses (combat, speed, endurance (mobility)), steel (weapons and armor), brought infectious diseases (decimating populations that couldn’t resist), centralized states (resources for colonization (money)), writing + printing to gain information 34. Number and accuracy of guns (not many guns and inaccurate, shooting is difficult), decreasing psychological impact 35. New world populations eventually adopted horse and guns 36. Combat advantages of horses: vantage point, defense of height, speed, maneuverability (stop and start), armor. (devastating in combat, advantage point, intimidating, height, fast) 37. Horse collar, horse, stirrup, cavalry (horse collar allowed to use in agriculture, stirrup was great for combat) 38. Steel weapons versus quilted armor, steel armor (no native weapon could penetrate europeans techno advanced armor) 39. Smallpox, influenza, typhus and bubonic plague (95% of population) (impact on colonization, disease travelled by individuals/animals on ships, spread disease to north, south central america) 40. Technology, science and sailing ships 41. Malaria, yellow fever and Europeans,Africa, India, SEAsia and New Guinea (spread to everywhere they visited, significant impact) 42. Resources of centralized nation states (wealthy from merchant trade, could equip large trips to bring back silver and take over land), market wealth (so much silver to new world that created gold) 43. Writing, inspiration, methods, maps, printing press (bureacratcy fell apart once kidnapped, writing contributed to Spanish, early victories known quickly, inspired expiditions to new world, methods of success became known through books and story telling of how they did it, maps indicated the corrected map after each voyage, determining what south, north, centralAmerica looked like and made travelling easier and easier to determine location, improved european ability for colonization) 44. Poor communication, information, misconceptions, speed, precedent (lack of writing, or false info didn’t help the locals as didn’t have writing to exchange ideas) (writing was for elite, ransom to give the emporer back but killed anyways) 45. european successes tied to tech and science, astronomy helped to lead to new land thus developed telescope and astronomical theory, to calculate location, mechanical clock was inaccurate on ships, got better as time passed. Tech developed for armor, forces, disease, writing, commynication, helped Europeans to succeed and had the advantage… allowed populations to increase densely, once transferred allowed more food to grow, more ….. Jan 22th 2014 ATS 1840 – Lecture 5 – Commerce and Science in The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution th th Scientific Revolution, 16 and 17 centuries, Renaissance and Reformation Economic and political conditions, Medieval feudalism and Renaissance capitalism Medieval agricultural revolution (ploughs and horses, crop rotation, fertilizing), crop output and population Capitalism and feudalism, land based economy, goods based economy International trade, ocean transport Conceptual changes that marked the Scientific Revolution Shift from a geocentric cosmology to a heliocentric cosmology Size of universe, terrestrial and celestial physics Social and religious impacts Professional scientific societies, journals, public science Quantification (average value), standardization (standardized methods; different rules, thus difficult to compare results, as must do experiment in the same way) (important mathematical equation of nature) Institutional and methodological impacts Economic concerns, navigation, international trade and astronomy (astronomy improved during this time) Economics and science, impact of trade and commerce on knowledge Objectivity and the Growth of Science Descriptions of natural objects, personal acquaintance Scientific revolution occurred during the “first age of global commerce” Medicine and the life sciences, “folk” traditions of local knowledge( everyone always thinks they know a bit of everything, home remedies for something) “Head and the hand” reunited in the Renaissance (greeks separated the head and the hand, using you hnds was what slaves did and valuable ppl used their head, conceptual thinking, renaissance brought this back, pl started to respect the ppl who could paint/sculpt) Knowledge from tradesmen and common people, not just scholars Reports/specimens from travelers: sailors, tourists, doctors, merchants, diplomats (experience of new things and contributed knowledge back to science) European middle class, dominant personal, intellectual and economic interests (shaped science and tech in general, interested in science and spend money on it) Global trade in foreign spices, tobacco, chocolate, coffee and tea (europeans collected goods from new world, made elaborate exotic gardens and showed them, socially important to know things about the new world, interest in it thus knowledge grew) Collecting strange objects, cabinets of curiosities, elaborate gardens Colonial holdings and the “data base” of science, local knowledge (science benefited from colonization, discoverubg new scientific things challeneged the dominant science back then which allowed for all the scientific changes in this time) Manorial production in Low Countries, middle class and other occupations Holland, Portugese, trade with East and resource extraction from theAmericas Commerce and Knowledge Descriptive knowledge of objects and economic transactions (descriptive knowledge: being able to describe new things they were discovering, ppl needed to know their new products in order to be able to sell thme, they needed to know their research to know exactly what their product was, there was an economic need therefore ppl became interested in knowing. This all came back to science) (economic needs became very important and the drive to know exactly what things were like) Methods for handling objects, trades, science and medicine (ex. When handling things across sea they neeed to come up with methods to save them, transport them and be able to sell tem, this info and methods came full circle with scientists) Purchase of objects, knowledge, good taste and social standing Knowledge by acquaintance, not scholarly knowledge Objectivity: knowledge related to the detailed acquaintance with objects (to see it/experience it) (this knowledge important to science and important to anyone buying/selling) Realistic painting (must see, get to know it personally, it to paint it) Early Modern preference for acquaintance over discourse Discoveries in new world and renewed exchange with East, questioning of ancients, importance of personal acquaintance Pharmacy and Medicine Apothecaries “hunting” for substances, medical practice (weren’t convinced that, went out to verify things that they usually accepted) Hippocratic tradition of detailed descriptions of disease symptoms (without commenting on causes, renaissance medical practitioners concentrated on describing the disease itself) “Pleasure gardens” local and foreign plants, botanical gardens for pharmaceuticals (universitys began to grow own plants for pharmaceuticals) Exotics, “cabinets of curiosity” wealthy and powerful (wealthy would show off stange plants/preserved animals from the new world to show to friends… expensive/sign of prestige) Anatomy, dissections, direct knowledge of the inner workings of the body (took apart bodies, even painters to see if it would kill them to see how the human body worked thus to paint it, directly acquinted/experience things) (economics commerce; knowledge of products became important to trade commerce; not just scientists, anyone became knowledgable about an object. All these factors filtered back to science) Jan 27 2014 NATS 1840 Lecture 6 – ANation Formed on Winter Hats – Global Economy and The Commodification of Nature Animals as Natural Resources Use of animals for food, skin, bones, fur, organs, etc. used for clothing, medicinal purposes, as tools, for religious purposes, etc. Harvesting animals motivation for exploration, conquest and trade (e.g beaver pelts to conquest Canada, political trade, colonization, for furs..etc) Beaver pelts: expeditions to Canada, expansion of territory within Canada, conflict and competition, trading relationships with local indigenous populations Extraction of resources (wood, silver, beaver) instead of settlement and send back to Europe. Go in, take what you want and take it back and use it; extract resources Beavers used in winter hats, used as luxury items and trade, large populations. expensive luxury items, early time of capitalism, disposable income laying around, thus was still bought frequently Luxury items, conflict and oppression (sugar and the slave trade);. Slaves used to harvest sugar sugar is luxury product; not needs, wants. Population growth, demands on the environment, needs and wants Natural resources, plants and minerals, animals as well; trade items that cause economic action Claims of exclusive use, over-hunting; beaver hunting examples; can hunt until extinction; can own the rights; can be sold or taxed for. The Beaver Beavers, long and short fur, winter hats (and pelts ) Beaver meat is edible but it has never been a major target for hunters Average weight 55 pounds, full beaver pelt 1 to 1-3/4 pounds, transportation on foot, in canoe or on horseback Estimated 10-50 beavers per square mile and 10 million total beavers in Canada before European conquest and settlement, beaver populations grow at 20% per year, migrate slowly and travel infrequently Beavers build lodges out of sticks, mud and branches to dam up water bodies Beavers eat wood, when forested areas are cleared for agriculture beaver populations have to relocate Europeans iron weapons and guns used by natives, impact on beaver population (major impacts of guns was used for hunting, efficient way of hunting and allowed precision from a distance, hunting rates grew) “The problem of the fur trade became one of organizing the transport of supplies and furs over increasingly greater distances.” (the more hunt/cut down, the further you had to look as more were consumed… no trains… just feet/horse) The Fur Trade accoding to innis, Fur trade came after fish and timber extraction by Europeans (first interested in fish then wood) Few initial permanent towns or cities built on coast or interior, temporary seasonal settlements to dry fish or process timber to transport back to Europe. Fish off the coast of Canada, dry and pack them and sail back to Europe and drop them off. Trade as early as 1534, brandy, tobacco, bread, fabrics and metal Different varieties of native community, e.g Huron-Iroquois agricultural society, corn, squash and beans, more permanent settlements, more elaborate government Limited native hunting of beaver, specialized knowledge; fur trade supplemental to existing trade in beginning (first, mostly more interested in fish and this was the case because they weren’t familiar with the item (beaver) therefore they were less seen in trade Increasing European demand led to increased native hunting Beavers hunted for meat and fur by indigenous populations before European arrival (sew pelts into coats) Motion of winter beaver pelt robes against the body for 15 to 18 months, “… loosened the deep roots of the long guard hair, and with wearing, this hair dropped out leaving the fur”, fur ideal for hat making Existing trade relations between indigenous tribes, chain of trade in different items (copper, fish, fur) Tribes who had the most fur to trade, obtained the most European technologies, advantages in conflict (e.g. iron and steel weapons, guns) (access to beavers would be able to exchange with the Europeans for lots because they all wanted beaver pelts. Thus would get access to best technologies) Agricultural tribes lost intertribal conflicts Here Innis considers an argument that sounds a lot like Diamond’s, “The complex European culture had reached a stage industrially in which technological equipment essential to specialized production had been accumulated. Ships capable of undertaking long ocean voyages, a manufacturing system which demanded large quantities of raw material, and a distributing organization which absorbed the finished product without difficulty…” (Innis, 16) “Heavy overhead cost of long voyages” limited trade to commodities like beaver pelts which were: (beaver pelts were all these things; lots of bevaers, they could make clothes, hats and their population was actually a natural resource) 1. Highly valuable 2. Used in more advanced manufacturing processes 3. Available on a large scale European traders, knowledge of native habits and language, conducting trade, encouraging alliances and conflicts Early trade monopolies, improved marketing and manufacturing processes, large profits (early in the years when the industry was young they basically gave away monopolies, but once it picked up the monopolities, became quite expensive Demand of native populations for European goods high, need for replacement, distance of transportation (example of this is iron tools, didn’t have the technology to create them but once they were using them they could use it to their advantage which advanced them but they became relied on them and the Europeans to fix them, new tech and info)( created huge dependencies for colonizing groups) This introduction of more complex iron tools to native communities had a number of impacts: 1. Native tools were abandoned and the methods used to make them forgotten 2. Guns displaced bows and arrows 3. Guns required regular maintenance and ammunition was in constant demand 4. Iron kettles, utensils and basic tools such as hatchets and knives were extremely desirable 5. Skills and knowledge related to beaver hunting became highly valued 6. Native populations became extremely dependent on European iron technologies Trade networks extended, hunting continued into summer Absence of hunters from tribe for more of year led to more hostile incursions, reductions in beaver populations led to conflict “Wars between tribes, which with bows and arrows had not been strenuous, conducted with guns were disastrous” (Innis, 20) Competition for European trade and conflict, middlemen tribes, European weapons, monopolies European supply of guns to interior tribes, leading to a cycle of, “… continuous and destructive warfare” (Innis 21) So here we have an example of trade for a natural resource (in this case beaver pelts) leading to a number of changes: 1. Traditional hunting methods (limited impact) exchanged for newer methods (much stronger impact) 2. Demand for product leading to further penetration into the interior 3. Warfare 4. Adecrease in agriculture and an increase in hunting 5. Dependence of native populations on more advanced technologies and a loss of traditional knowledge and technologies 6. Significant decreases in animal populations SC/NATS 1840 – Lecture 7 – The Struggle to Control Capital – The Environment as a Pawn in  A Global Game Political Underpinnings of the Industrial Revolution - Industrial Revolution, technological and management based change, explosion in production  and consumption - Population increase before industrial revolution - Political and economic forces, attitude towards the environment, natural objects as resources  for exploitation - Feudalism (land based economy) to mercantilism (trade based economy) to capitalism  (production, resources, technology based economy) - Mercantilism: economic system, nations maintain a positive balance of trade, more exports  than imports, hoard specie (gold or silver) Modes of Production before the Industrial Revolution - Modes of production before Industrial Revolution: 1. Artisanal production: skilled artisans, apprentices, little division of labour,  goods were produced from start to finish by one person 2. Mass­production: putting­out system, groups of workers perform one  operation on product, work done in small buildings, rural areas, merchant controlled  3. Factory production: large numbers of labourers, one place (ship production,  mining) - Industrial Revolution, mass and factor production dominate, deskilled worker, lower wages,  cheap production, larger scale  - Agricultural workers displaced,  work in urban areas, value of income decreases - Industrial sector came to dominate economy  England, Cotton and Textiles -  England industrialized over 18th and 19th centuries: o Wood shortage and coal, concentrated power, steam engine, printing, dying, iron  making o abundance of natural resources o cast iron - Textiles, ample supply of materials, increasing demand, increased production - Displaced agricultural laborers too poor to provide market for textiles, colonial markets  crucial - Colonial acquisitions, resources, markets  - Europe lacking land, land­intensive cotton - Capitalist investment in land and overseas ventures like mills and factories - Capital requirements low, small businessmen , tight margins, savings from labor, lower  wages , longer working day, child labor  Key Technological Developments 1. Transportation Networks (Roads and Rivers) - until 17th road system in UK supervised by local parish - Turnpike roads paid for road maintenance - Rivers made navigable, extensive canal works, by mid­to­late 18th century Britain had most  extensive road, river and canal network in the world - Transport advantages increased regional specialization, urbanization competition, division of  labor  2. Steam Power - As coal, tin, iron & copper manufacture, coal mines drained with pumps, powered by steam  engines - Local assembly, 1725: iron cylinders replaced brass, heat capacity  - James Watt separate condenser for engine - cluster of innovations: ability to bore and plane valves, steam proof valves, tighter  component fit & governor to reduce power  3. Railroads - Steam power and trains - Railways and speculative investment, banking system for loans (capital intensive), land  claims (assisted  by state), technical education for engineers & skilled workers, industrial  base for equipment & fuel - 1841 over 1300 miles of track in UK, 1860 over 30,000 miles of track in US - 1890 onwards India world’s biggest railway network, colony, failed to industrialize during  railway boom - Crashes, derailments, explosions & collisions common - Innovation, large firms, shipping & transport schedules - Governments subsidies, and grants th - Lowered transport costs, coal, iron & engineering industries, 19  century US economic  growth - Markets connected, scale of production increased - Personal travel & exchange of ideas - Firms, raw materials & markets th Competition for Empire in the 19  Century - Political conditions of the industrial revolution - Naylor Nineteenth century competition between the English and French, control of global  trade and resources - Disrupting trade military tactic, European blockade and colonial markets - India, tax revenue, purchase Chinese silks, cottons and teas, not using specie - West Indies (sugar and slaves) to East Indies (India) transfer from mercantilism to industrial  capitalism  - Sugar beet and abandonment of West Indies, abandonment of slavery  - 1813, India market for cheap fabrics, formerly luxury fabric exporter - Mercantilism, Spanish silver, luxury trade (furs, sugar, spices, Indian cotton)  - Markets anthproductivity, India and North America, markets and policy - Over 18  century UK gold standard, Brazillian gold, paper money  - 1816 gold standard, import and export controls  - Sift from silver to gold and imperial trade possibilities - London financial centre in European commerce, loans and banks  - ownership, control of the flow of capital - colonial resources, trade policy, importing of raw materials and exporting of manufactured  goods to colonies NATS 1840 Lecture 8 – Specialization of Production: Technology Maximizes Resource Extraction Land scarcity, growing global trade, rapidly growing manufacturing industries ( production bumps up, produces more waste, making more food, bigger population.. which lead to land scarcity, need more land for more people, competition for population houses or used for agriculture, Europeans travelled and took over land in other countries) thanufacturing grew as resources increase) (medicine didn’t work much to change like expectancy until 19 C) Large scale resource extraction (food, sugar, fish, minerals, plants, fur, etc extracted for home countries.. v Large variety of resources: food (sugar, fish), non-food animal products (e.g. furs), minerals (e.g. gold and silver), plant materials (trees) minimal processing (e.g. drying and salting fish), greater processing - as basis for manufacturing (e.g. iron for tools) (didn’t require extensive manchinery) (even fur hats through beaver fur) Raw materials for manufacturing, production levels increased, dependence on natural resources, economic growth and competitiveness ( * natural resources are necessary for everything to work) Natural resources became fiscal tools for the state, taxation, investment, labor, etc. state to management of finances, maximize extraction of that resource (state viewed natural resources as fiscal tools used to generate revenue to fund programs (redistribute/tariff used for economy(make money)), govt used natural resources so don’t have to raise taxes/raise interest rates at banks, fiscal tool (cut down more trees etc), extracted as many of trees as possible to make as much money) New World wilderness, inexhaustible resources, pressures on the environment (most European settlers thought they would never run out of trees 19 C colonists, so kept cutting down trees until hit a limit, pressure was put on the environment as population/production raised, change technology to extract more (timber)) Technologies augment human actions, sawmills to process wood Standing trees are called timber, sawn boards from those trees are called lumber The Timber Trade in Canada Historians of old world (third world countries) concerned with social and institutional issues, historians of New World (Canada/States) focus on environment, “war with the wilderness” The supply areas of wood (due to its abundance, due to their distance from populated areas), demand areas of wood (e.g. urban areas, areas that were settled early and wood was removed), both (e.g. areas that are partially forested and partially urbanized). (seperates parts of Canada to be used for agriculture, as agriculture spread, more trees got cut down for areas of demand) Agricultural land ( “arable” land) and tree clearance, areas of demand Trees as masts for sailing ships, lumber for UK, lumber for US (demand for Canadian timber) Canals and railways extend access to interior wood, technology exploitation and demand (cut down logs would be sent down water to exploit the resources) (natural waterways, then through canals then railways) (industrial re)volution, more tech to transport natural resources, the more you get back Small country mill, local use, mills cutting “deals” for UK market (a “deal” was, “… a plank three inches or more thick, suitable for resawing in England…”), and commercial sawmills, US and large Canadian cities as customers ( many processing facilities shows that theres a large industry in need) Cheap small local mills, low output, small rivers and streams (not expensive, natural sources of power and low costs) Local mills expansion, US investors, lumber supply Increase in capacity, ample supply of wood, skilled French labor, significant increase in production (U.S mills put mills in Canada and causes pressure on environment) European mills: high quality wood product, exacting measurements free of blemishes and knots (Canadian/American focus on quantity, where European mills focused on quality) Canadian and American mills: rough cuts and blemishes secondary, maximize output (similar to railway industry, Canada was cheap and fast, Europeans was slow and expensive) Canadian mills: increased capacity, speed of wood cutting Timber removed using traditional tools, axes, shipped down rivers and canals to sawmills Speed and technological innovation: ‘whipsaws’, water and wind powered saws, multiple saws (“gang saws”), circular saws and band saws, multiple versions of these (“gang circular saws”, “gang band saws”) (different ways to maximize the amount of wood cut at a saw mill) Automation of transfer of logs to saw (rolling chutes), clearing the saw (making sure tthat the processes flows) Water power (large numbers of small bodies of water, create water mills, geographically restricted so no water no power), steam powered saws (power source wherever you want, and build it wherever, just need power supply, move it where power is cheap), location, burn waste as a fuel (water wood is not used and throw it into steam engine and use it as power/fuel) (coal better than wood for power), more compact 1850’s average sized commercial mills cutting 12 million feet of lumber a year, 1870’s close to 30 million feet a year, “… the Gilles mill at Braeside was cutting forty million feet a season…” by the 1890’s (mass produced industry, making a lot of wood) Standard mills, scale of industry 1920’s central Canadian lumber industry decreasing: consumption of best local pine, demand for wood in pulp and paper industry drew away from sawmills, competition from BC pine Agricultural sector, overall number of sawmills decreased, efficiency of individual sawmills increased (fewer works/similar work) (not many working in agricultural sector(less people), because of machinery, output has increased) Overall Points Timber industry, natural resource extraction in 19 century Natural resources treated as fiscal resources by state, taxes and spending (environmentalists say this is a big problem, as they don’t have value other than used for money) Maximize production, inexhaustible supply Faster cutting, lower quality product Capacity increase in sawmills, technological innovations, millions of feet of wood cut by average sawmill every year One country, one industry, scale of resource extraction by late 19 century NATS 1840 – Lecture 9 – Resource Management and Conservation in the IndustrialAge Introduction Industrialization, manufacturing industries, the factory and labour Natural resource management in Canada in the late 19 and early 20 centuryh State versus private sector ownership in resource management Canada: government retained ownership and sold the right to harvest timber, mine minerals, etc. Forest Conservation Conservation linked to preserving source of revenue for the state Support for conservation from businessmen, professionals and intellectuals, not lumbermen 19 century, forests believed to be inexhaustible Abundance of forests contributed to view that forests could be exploited then land resettled by farmers After turn of the century, view changed, forests a renewable resource to be managed Conservation directed towards use, not protection or reforestation Scientific expertise and conservation, professional foresters, efficient management, revenues University programs, professional associations forester scientific expertise Conservation a state movement, bureaucratic resources, long-term focus, survey of forests Conservation combined ideas social responsibility, management of public resources and scientific management - Conservation movement challenged the agrarian myth of the frontier farm - US conservation and ownership, Canadian crown ownership, management and preservation - 1907, provincial government regulations calculated dues on volume rather than area, industry agents - Government conservation movement set aside larger areas of forest, auctioned off timber lands from these areas when money needed Conclusions - Government regulation subordinate to profits, relied on industry self-regulation - Public was unwilling to invest in more aggressive administration and regulation, forests were expected to produce revenue, not consume it - In US conservation about ownership, simple issue with public involvement, in Canada an administrative problem, less public interest ­ As with water and minerals, state ownership ­ NATS 1840 – Lecture 10 – Colonialism and Agrarian Water Management Flood Management in the Colonial Context Flood management for agricultural and damage prevention Did containment control or magnify damage? Managing British Colonial Holdings Floods in the Orissa Delta in Colonial India Flood control embankments, flooding, cheap and easy to build ColonelArthur Cotton, canals to control the river, irrigate, commerce Economic concerns, Indian Empire transferred to crown ownership (1858), private capital was investing in transport networks Canals better than railways, equal investment, investment guarantees Investors and specialist authority on canals System slow to develop, under-utilized, government takeover in 1868 Many irrigators did not use system, rate reductions, distinguishing between licensed and unlicensed areas, rate collection Difficulties collecting rents Rainfall collection and traditional irrigation methods Laws against bunds, “small embankments created by cultivators to trap water from drainage lines” Forms of water capture: ponds, tanks and drainage canals Government forced use of canal system rather than local sources Owners rate for land was to be increased when irrigation was added Embankments prevented smaller scale flooding, which brought fertilizing silt Canal problems: higher elevations could not take on canal water, lower regions became waterlogged Determining fees for flood protection difficult Flooding had benefits, making it hard to charge for flood protection Summary The British government encountered several problems when attempting to deal with the periodic flooding of the delta: Dilemma similar to the Dutch, river control for revenue, land tenure and trade, but control led to more flooding Making nature legible or measurable in order to commodify it was problem Colonial authorities, commercial and environmental goals, the impact of flooding on “…rent assesses and landed taxpayers” Duration of committment Their system neither stemmed the floods nor improved agriculture Hardships for the irrigators (costs, crops) NATS 1840 – Lecture 11 - The Demands of Industry on Nature: Trees as a Fiscal Resource - Complex technological networks, people, institutions and resources - Large scale government planning and technological networks, utility industry - Epistemological claim: “Certain kinds of knowledge and control require a narrowing of vision” - Complexity of nature, legibility and manipulation, flood control in India - 18th century German scientific forestry: timber as a fiscal resource, medicinal, religious, social and “practical” uses - Simplification and production, later problems, local knowledge and legibility - Simplification and a synoptic view, counting, manipulation, measurement and assessment - Reduction of biodiversity, symmetrical planting patterns - Monocultures, pests, weather extremes, resilience - Legibility, simpler arrangement, clearing, standardized log size, production forecasts, output reliability oPolitical and economic advantages of reliability, prediction oQuality, efficiency and speed of transactions oVariety, geometric organization oUniformity and long range planning oSimplification and testing (fertilizers, rain and weeding), oScience and simplification, experiments, knowledge Costs of simplification: oImpact of pests, weather, disease oAdoption of Norway spruce, local ecosystems and materials oForest deterioration, biodiversity - Simplification, efficiencies, production, knowledge, unintended negative consequences - Complex technological networks have similar problems NATth1840 Lecture 12 – Science Changes the Game: Industrial Expansion Magnified 18 century, craft production, manufacturing, science, engineers Science and industry (electrical and chemical) Noble’sAnalysis of Science and Industry th th Late 19 / early 20 century, science, new products, production methods, efficiencies Theoretical science and applied science, shift of interest over century Capitalists, publications, university contacts, R+D laboratories, science for profit, efficiency Science based industry in US, chemistry and physics (electricity) Scientific R+D long and expensive, excess capital, traditional manufacturing profits, financial speculation, Industrial consolidation (vertical integration) Beyond resources of individual entrepreneur Family owned industries, large corporations, diverse products, consolidation 1920’s: 500+ mergers in chemical & electrical industries small number of large companies dominant: Dow, Union Carbide, Dupont Wide range of products: Union Carbide: carbon, alloys, oxyacetylene, liquid gas, bakelite and plastics, Dupont explosives, gasoline, and automobile applications Science, variety of applications, industrial laboratories Diffusion to petroleum, metallurgy, paper, cement, photography, fertilizer, steel industries The Chemical Industry in the US industrial revolution, high demand, batch production and synthetics Generic chemicals: acids, alkalis, inorganic salts for manufacturers Industries requiring chemicals for manufacturing: textiles, paper, leather, glass, soap, paint, petroleum, rubber, electrical equipment, fertilizers, insecticides, automobile industry Dyes in textile and printing, long history Before WWI, German chemical dyes advanced: initial lead, low cost, university science R+D network, patents After WWI, US acquires German patents Tariff barriers to protect domestic chemical industry US industry processes: catalytic, liquefying of air, electrochemical, organic synthesis Foreign processes, out producing sources by turn of century Electrolytic process: salts, soda, chlorine and bromine The Reciprocal Relationship between Science and Industry Science: new processes and products, monopolies, patent control Applied scientific research, industry needs, curriculum Industrial Momentum and the Electrical Industry Turn of century US electrical industry monopolized, key innovations and patents Electrical power generation, lighting, transportation and communications industries in late 1800’s Electrical industry engineers and scientists moved to other industries, spread use of patents, research laboratories and technical training ATT (telephones), GE & Westinghouse (lighting, power, traction) Reliable current, efficiency, standardization, reliability 1885 Westinghouse, alternating current Patents and Innovation 17 year patents, securing patents and mergers for control Edison laboratory Menlo Park, New Jersey Market guide for innovations, incandescent lighting at gas lighting prices, improvements to lower price Technological systems complex, network of innovations, ownership of relevant patents Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston merged into GE Patent appropriations & mergers led to ATT dominance Patent maintenance and pursuit expensive and time consuming, patent pools Patents are idea protection, complexity, science Vertical Integration Supplier of product merges with product user: vertical integration Industrial processes, science, capital intensity, vertical integration reduction of transaction costs, supply and price guarantees Share purchase / mergers between chemical companies and product users (automobile industry) Share purchase / mergers with companies that produced their raw materials, eg. Copper, potash, sulfur, phosphate and nitrate Internal demand for greater purity, volume and variety of products 1910, US chemical companies scope wide, medicinal and fine chemicals Dupont and explosives, dynamite, nitroglycerine and black powder Conclusion: The “Scientific Revolution” in Industry Electrical & chemical industries in US, 19 / 20 century, added scientific knowledge to their processes This required: 46. Control and purchase of patents 47. Scientific training for employees 48. Large scale industrial scientific R+D Electrical and chemical engineers and scientists, “scientific revolution” in industry, identity of corporate and scientific advancement ­ Lecture 13: Feb 25 ( & Lecture 12) NATS 1840 – Lecture 13 – TheAutomobile TheAutomobile Today Most successful technology: massmanufactured and everyone uses them - The automobile is pervasive & integrated in NorthAmerica – pervasive: millions owned and manufactured at a time. Integrated: mixed in with our lives, work, eating, all social practices we do outside the car we do it inside. - Pervasive: millions \owned, millions produced - Integrated: many social activities pursued in cars - restrictions on use: licensing and cost of operation – must buy a car, easy to get a hold of discounted rates for used cars, - Cars are intertwined with pop culture, NorthAmerican values; individual freedom, economic prosperity, sign of adulthood – songs about cars, movies, books, wrapped in our culture, tied in with northAmerican values – first big purchase. Culturally and socially significant - motor vehicle, urbanization and suburbanization,
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