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NATS 1860 Test Study Note 2

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Natural Science
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

NATS 1860 Definitions and Keywords: Part II - Depth of sleep curve: (page 244) This was a concept devised using a pendular hammer banging on a piece of wood in order to test the sensitivity to sensory stimulation. Kohlschutter came up with this experiment at 30 to 60 minute intervals of sleep onset, and the hammer was gradually raised in order to increase loudness to the supposed awakening point. Kohlschutter is significant to neuroscience because he was one of the scientists to specifically eliminate a great amount of data in order to achieve his “idealized sleep curve”. He’s also significant because he was one of the 19 century scientists to use charts to record things mechanically through instruments. These tests were made to achieve specific results that they wanted to see, which is why sometimes scientists would give falsified data. - Maria Manasseina: (245) One of the only few Russian women trained as physician in the late 19 century. She experimented on 10 puppies for the purpose of seeing how long they could stay awake. After their death she dissected their brains to find that depriving them of sleep caused lesions. She also noticed that in their brains there were cerebral hemorrhages. She is specifically important because she didn’t receive a Nobel Prize because she was a woman, showing how women were oppressed in the 19 century th scientific community, and their contributions weren’t seen as that important. - Plethysmograph: A contraption invented by Angelo Mosso in the late 19 th century. It was used to indicate decrease of blood supply during sleep, as well as an increase of blood during the period of wakefulness. The contraption worked as a glass cylinder where the arm was placed, then it was sealed with a rubber band, and then filled with water. When the arm expanded, water flowed into the test tube and lowered the pulling system showing the blood change. This contraption is important because it was one of the first methods of assessing brain injuries in different kinds of people using plemographic tracings to show relaxation in the limbs and decrease of blood supply to the brain during sleep. - Hypnotoxin: Pieron and Legendre originally discovered this concept during their theory that blood from sleepy animals injected into energized animals would make them also sleepy. This was based on the observation that if you take the cerebrospinal fluid of a tired animal and inject it into an energized animal it will produce a need for sleep. Therefore, they speculated that there was a certain chemical that when exerted into the bloodstream caused drowsiness. Pieron hypothesized that the unidentified sleep inducing hypnotoxin probably worked by “eliciting an inhibitory reflex according to the brown skewering conception”. He thought the center for the hypnotoxin was in the brainstem. - Charles Bell: He was one of the scientists to develop the Bell-Magendie Law that dealt with the motor and sensory nerve roots in the spinal cord. He did specific work on the dissection and observation of muscles of the face used n facial expression. His major contribution to the neuroscience society would be an essay he wrote in the 19 century called the Anatomy of Expressions in Painting where he would discuss his theory on facial muscles.He is significant to the localization theory because he discovered Bell’s palsy. This disease was viral infections that affected certain sections of the brain and caused the paralysis facial muscles. Bell’s discovery showed how the ability to use facial muscles, such as smiling, was important because it allowed you to communicate with others, as well as telling them how you felt (happy, angry, or sad). - Duchenne de Bologne: He’s a scientist who after reading Charles Bell’s work started using electricity to stimulate specific muscles. His major contribution to neuroscience is the being the first to use clinical photography. Through clinical photography he took pictures of patients’ various facial muscle changes after stimulation. Through this he supported the localization theory by discovering that stimulation of specific muscles can be identified with specific expressions of emotion. Also, he discovered a genetic disorder that caused the weakening of muscles at an early age, and noticed that that also affected facial muscles and prevented people from being able to show proper emotions. This disease was called Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy in his name. - Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals: Charles Darwin wrote this book in the end of the 19 century. It stated that there are specific emotions that are characteristics of species. By this, it suggested that in both man and animals, the emotions they exhibit were the ones necessary for survival and inherited from their previous generations. He also wrote that emotions are adaptive meaning that they were subject to change depending on the environment that people or animals are placed in. For example, this could’ve meant that the snarling an adaptive emotion because it was used to place fear in other animals. Since humans and animals have similar emotions, Darwin suggested that we all share a common ancestor and emotions are innate not learned. This meant that through Natural Selection, there are specific emotions that were necessary for our survival, and that’s why they’re still present. He claimed that emotions were a clear indication of how we felt, and as we grow older we gain better control over them. - Ekman: He was a scientist in the 20 century who wanted to find a culture that wouldn’t focus on the media of culture. His interest in this was in order to find out whether emotions are learned or innate. In order to answer his question he discovered a tribe in New Guinea that was never exposed to media. He discovered that there were 6 shares emotions between all of these people: happiness, sorrow, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. Through this experiment he’s important to the neuroscience community because he was able to prove that emotions are innate in our nature. He a developed a technique for using microexpressions (the 6 basic involuntary emotions) to determine lying in people. - Id: Involved in the psychoanalytic theories of human motivations and feelings, it’s also inspired by localization theories in neuroscience. It is important to the localization theory is its nature of having a specific section of our reasoning be present. This means that there is a specialized structure in the brain controlling the subconscious. It essentially suggests that there are animalistic instincts within our pre-frontal cortex and that causes us to have an unconscious mind where we make decisions based on our animalistic instincts. Freud thought up this theory with as well as the ego and the super-ego, which were said to control the conscious. - Phineas Gage: He was a railway worker who was a survivor of a work accident. In that scenario a large iron rod go through his skull, damaging parts of his frontal cortex. Before the accident Gage was a good worker, people liked him; he was respected and got along with everyone. After the damage to his pre-frontal cortex he became lazy, vulgar and not friendly. Gage’s experience suggests that the frontal cortex is connected directly to emotions and personality. Therefore, Gage was able to prove through his own experience the localization of emotions to the frontal lobe. This was significant because scientists like Galen associated the frontal lobe with intelligence, meaning that Gage’s experience disproved a previous theory and allowed for the advancement of neuroscience. - James-Lange Theory: It is a theory of psychology as a disciple, about how emotion is originating in the unconscious physical experience. Essentially, this theory is a reverse to the traditional idea of emotion causing bodily change by insisting that body changes come before emotion. This meant that emotion was the minds’ perception of the physiological state and it was different for each emotion. This theory was established through introspection and data from clinical cases. Cannon also heavily criticized it. He claimed that this theory was false because paralyzed individuals still feel the full range of emotions, despite being physically unable to move. This meant that emotions were caused by adrenalin discharges in the body, not by the actual movement of muscles. - Walter Cannon: The guy who’s responsible for fight-or-flight response, he figures prominently in our understanding of stress. The idea is that our emotional system i
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