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Natural Science
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

NATS 1860 Keywords and Definitions - Localization theory: The core definition is the idea that different structures of the brain should have different functions. This theory starts with the brain as a whole, and narrows specific structures with specific functions. The first sign of considered localization theory was historically shown to be in circa 16 century BCE (through the Edwin Smith Papyrus), when Egyptian scribes noted that patients who were stricken on the head had a loss of balance. th Localization was taken into a more serious consideration during 4 century CE when Nemesius, bishop of Emesa, proposed through the ventricle theory that the three cavities in the brain were localized, and that each of these cavities served a particular function; perception, cognition and memory. The localization theory is also the main theme of our look at the history of neurology. - Trepanation: Medical procedure in which a hole or series of holes is removed from the skull for medical or traditionally religious purposes. Trepanated skulls first discovered are dated to be over 10,000 years old and oldest skulls were discovered from within the Neolithic region. Alexandre Francois Barbie du Botage was the first to notably analyze the process of trepanation. The process of trepanation was adapted in such countries as Mesopotamia, Ancient Idea, Ancient China, Native Peru and Spain. Based on archeogical discoveries, scientists have been able to determine the percentile of survival rate being 63% based on skulls having a smooth texture (in the hoths) indicating a healing process occurred. However, as of the 20 century it was replaced by psychosurgery and drug therapy. The most recent case of trepanation was present in 1970 by Amanda Feilding, a young woman in the Bart Hugus Amsterdam experiment, in which she engaged trepanation as a method of hallucination. - Edwin Smith surgical papyrus: It is a Papyrus bought by Edwin Smith in the late 19 century and then translated by James Breasted in the early 20 th century. This papyrus was most likely written in 17 century BCE, and it describes Ancient Egyptian Clinical cases. This is important to Neuroscience because it told us that even in civilizations such as Ancient Egypt, they were using clinical cases to localize which kinds of head injury caused which kinds of movement impairment. This is important because it shows that localization theory was considered a possibility since Ancient Egypt. For example, In the Edwin Smith Papyrus there are many cases in which an individual is stricken on the head, and then they are unable to stay balanced. This lead to question if there was any specific function of the brain, which caused people to maintain their balance. - Humoral theory: Its a theory that states that the human body is made up of four humours; air (represented in the form of blood), water (represented in the form of phlegm), earth (represented in the form of black bile), and fire (in the form of yellow bile). It was the first essential framework for understanding and curing disease. Essentially, in order to cure the body, you had to balance out all the humours, and this usually meant bleeding to remove too much of an air element in order to equalize all the otherelements. Hippocrates considered this theory sometime in the 5 -4 century th BCE, and its a holistic approach to medicine, which suggests that the body works as a whole as opposed to the theme of our course, specialization, which suggests that every part has a specific and unique function. - Ventricular localization: The theory that there were three large cavities in the brain that were filled with cerebrospinal fluid as well as animal spirits, which moved along through the muscles through nerve pathways, which were considered to be hollow. Galen first proposed this theory sometime in 2 nd century CE. Later, Nemesius, the bishop of Emesa (4 century CE) proposed that perception was part of the frontal ventricle, cognition was part of the middle ventricle, and memory was in posterior ventricles. Therefore, this is important to our course because it shows the very first specific thoughts about localization, and that different parts in the brain have different functions. - Andreas Vesalius: He was an anatomist and physician during the 16 century th CE who wrote the di humani corpus fabrica, a very influential book in the progress of neuroscience because it offered a very detailed sketch of the brain and the different layers, ridges, and bumps in the brain. Vesalius is an important character in our study of the history of neuroscience because his works urged a re-examination of past medical beliefs based on anatomy, meaning it urged neuroscience to progress forward, instead of wasting time pondering on incorrect theories. - Descartes: A French philosopher who lived in the 16 -17 century CE, he came up with a theory of involuntary
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