Study Guides (400,000)
CA (150,000)
York (10,000)
NURS (20)
Midterm

NURS 3524 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ductus Venosus, Ductus Arteriosus, Fetal Circulation


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 3524
Professor
Mavoy Bertram
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 27 pages of the document.
Week 2
Growth and development
- Neonate
- Infant
- Toddler
Newborn
First 28 days of life
Infancy
Birth to 1 year
‘’normal development’
- Highly favourable
- Is a cause of parental anxiety
Fetal circulation
Three shunts
Ductus venosus (closes within a day or two) , foramen ovale (closes shortly after birth, fuses completely
in first year) and ductus arteriosus (closes off)
Fetal circulation
An increased pulmonary resistance forces blood into descending aorta
Main fetal circulation
Then to the body

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

1. Umbilical vein: oxygenated blood reaches fetus through umbilical vein
2. Ductus venosus: most of the blood bypasses the liver through ductus venosus, although little
blood enters liver
3. Inferior vena cava: the oxygenated blood mixes with deoxygenated
4. Right atrium: IVC opens into the right atrium
5. Foramen ovale: the blood from right atrium is guided through the foramen ovale to reach the
left atrium
6. Left ventricle: blood enters left ventricle and then into aorta . thus receiving better oxygenated
blood
Secondary route
Immediate adjustments to extra-uterine life
Respiratory system
What stimulates breathing?
- Tactile stimulation: touching, tapping feet
stimulus receptors in skin
- Low o2, high co2
Foramen ovale: closes d/t decreased pressure in right atrium, and increased pressure of left
atrium
- Complete seal in 6 months to 1 year
Ductus venosus: closes due to no blood going through it
- Closes within 2 days
Ductus arteriosus: closes during 4th day due to high oxygen and low prostaglandin

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- Thermal factors
Surfactant production
To increase pulmonary compliance.
- Reduces surface tension
To prevent atelectasis (collapse of the
lung) at the end of expiration.
To facilitate recruitment of collapsed
airways.
Circulatory system
What causes shunts to close?
- High O2 concentration will cause to
close off
- Fall in prostaglandin and acidosis
**closure delayed in ill/preterm**
Foramen ovale: closes from decreased pressure
in right atrium, and increased pressure in left
atrium
Ductus venosus: closes due to no blood going
through it
Ductus arteriosus: closes during 4th day due to
high oxygen and low prostaglandin
d/t reversible flow through ductus
arteriosus functional murmur is heard
Thermoregulation
take a rectal temperature, coat the end of a
blunt thermometer with petroleum jelly, and
insert it gently into the baby's rectum no farther
than 1/2 inch. Avoid using an ear thermometer
to take the temperature of a newborn baby
because the newborn’s ear canals are wet and
can contribute to an incorrect temperature
reading.
How does newborn maintain temperature
- flexed position
- brown adipose tissue: great capacity for
heat production through metabolic
activity
- main source of a newborn baby’s body
heat is his baby fat, or brown adipose
tissue,
take axillary temp for 4 hours of life
what factors predispose newborn to excessive
heat loss?
- Large SA compared to weight
- Less subcutaneous fat
- Not able to shiver
- Blood vessels more superficial
Gastrointestinal system
Liver physiologic vs pathologic jaundice
Physiological jaundice: will appear after 24 hours
Pathological jaundice: appear at birth or within
24 hours of life
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version