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ORGS Midterm Notes.docx

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York University
Organization Studies
ORGS 1000

ORGS 1000 Notes Chapter 1  What is Organizational Behaviour? • Must be able to understand employees’actions in order to change their habits • Organizational Behaviour: a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations • Human resources management takes the theories and principles studied in OB and explores the “nuts and bolts” applications of those principles in organizations • Strategic management focuses on the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization’s profitability • Theories in OB are drawn from a wide variety of disciplines • Frederick Taylor = “the father” of scientific management • He studied how to increase efficiency in regards to performance of a given task • Bureaucracy: an organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members through a strict chain of command, formal rules and procedures, high specialization, and centralized decision making (Max Weber) • Characteristics of bureaucracy included: (1) the division of labour with a high level of technical specialization; (2) a strict chain of command (authority hierarchy) in which every member reported to someone at a higher level in the organization; (3) a system of formal rules and procedure that ensured consistency, impartiality, and impersonality throughout the organization; and (4) decision making at the top of the organization • Human Relations Movement: field of study that recognizes that the psychological attributes of individual workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviours • Contingency approach brings forth the idea that there is no one best, universal principle • The two primary outcomes of interest to organizational behaviour researchers are job performance and organizational commitment • Individual mechanisms that directly affect job performance and organizational commitment are job satisfaction, stress, motivation, trust, justice, and ethics, and learning and decision making • The factors that improve those individual mechanisms are personal values, cultural values, and ability, teams, diversity, and communication, power, influence, and negotiation, and leaderships styles and behaviour • The factors that show that individuals and groups function within an organizational context are organizational structure and organizational culture and change • Effective organizational behaviour can help keep a product good over the long term • Resource-based View: a model that argues that rare (short supply) and inimitable (incapable of being copied or imitated) resources help firms maintain competitive advantage • To successfully mimic the practices of a competitor, it would be necessary to take into consideration all the little day to day decisions and trade-offs that employees make every day • Good people are both rare and inimitable and therefore create a resource that is valuable for creating competitive advantage • Rule of one-eighth: the belief that at best one-eighth, or 12 percent, of organizations will actually do what is required to build profits by putting people first • Scientific Method (Sir Francis Bacon 1600s): Theory  Hypotheses  Data  Verification • Theory: a collection of verbal and symbolic assertions that specify how and why variables are related, as well as the conditions in which they should (and should not) be related • Hypotheses: written predictions that specify relationships between variables • Correlation: the statistical relationship between two variables • In organizational behaviour, a correlation of 0.50 is considered “strong”, a correlation of 0.30 is considered “moderate”, and a correlation of 0.10 is considered “weak” • Meta-analysis: a method that combines the results of multiple scientific studies by essentially calculating a weighted-average correlation across studies (with larger studies receiving more weight) Chapter 2  Job Performance • Using results to indicate job performance can create problems • Results don’t tell you how to reverse a “bad year” • Job Performance: the value of the set of employee behaviours that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment • Task performance includes employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces • Routine task performance involves well-known responses to demands that occur in a normal, routine, or otherwise predictable way • Adaptive task performance, or adaptability, involved employee responses to task demands that are novel, unusual, or at the very least, unpredictable • These behaviours are becoming increasingly important as globalization, technological advances, and knowledge-based work increase the pace of change in the workplace • Creative task performance is the degree to which individuals develop ideas or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful • The increase in the value of creative performance can be explained by the rapid technological change and intense competition that mark today’s business landscape • Job analysis: a process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs • The three most common steps in job analysis are to make a list of all the activities involved in a job, each activity is rated according to factors such as importance and frequency, and the highest rated activities are retained and used to define task performance • National Occupational Classification (NOC): a national database of occupations in Canada, organizing over 30,000 job titles into 520 occupational group descriptions • Citizenship Behaviour: voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place • Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviour: going beyond normal job expectations to assist, support, and develop co-workers and colleagues • Helping: assisting co-workers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they are first on the job • Courtesy: sharing important information with co-workers • Sportsmanship: maintaining a positive attitude with co-workers through good and bad times • Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it • Voice: speaking up to offer constructive suggestions for change, often in reaction to a negative work event • Civic Virtue: participation in company operations at a deeper-than-normal level through voluntary meetings, readings, and keeping up with news that affects the company • Boosterism: positively representing the organization when in public • Citizenship behaviours are relevant in virtually any job, regardless of the particular nature of its tasks, and there are clear benefits of these behaviours in terms of the effectiveness of work units and organizations • Counterproductive Behaviour: employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment • Property Deviance: Behaviours that harm the organization’s assets and possessions • Sabotage: purposeful destruction of equipment, organizational processes, or company products • Theft: stealing company products or equipment from the organization • Production Deviance: intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output • Wasting Resources: using too many materials or too much time to do too little work • SubstanceAbuse: the abuse of drugs or alcohol before coming to work or while on the job • Political Deviance: behaviours that intentionally disadvantage other individuals • Gossiping: casual conversations about other people in which the facts are not confirmed as true • Incivility: communication that is rude, impolite, discourteous, and lacking in good manners • PersonalAggression: hostile verbal and physical actions directed towards other employees • Harassment: unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a colleague • Abuse: employee assault or endangerment from which physical and psychological injuries may occur • People who engage in one form of counterproductive behaviour also engage in others, it is relevant to any job, and it is often surprising which employees engage in counterproductive behaviour • Management by Objectives (MBO): a management philosophy that bases employee evaluations on whether specific performance goals have been met • It is best suited for managing the performance of employees who work in contexts in which objective measures of performance can be quantified • BehaviourallyAnchored Rating Scales (BARS): use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employee’s job performance behaviours directly • 360-Degree Feedback: a performance evaluation that uses ratings provided by supervisors, co-workers, subordinates, customers, and the employees themselves • Used to provide a more balanced and comprehensive examination of performance • Best suited to improving or developing employee talent, especially if the feedback is accompanied by coaching about how to improve the areas identified as points of concern • Forced Ranking: a performance management system in which managers rank subordinates relative to one another Chapter 3  Organizational Commitment • The most immediate cause of all forms of withdrawal behaviour is the level of overall commitment felt by an individual • Organizational Commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization • Withdrawal Behaviour: employee actions that are intended to avoid work situations • Affective Commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of emotional attachment (staying because you want to) • Continuance Commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization due to an awareness of the costs of leaving (staying because you have to) • Normative Commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation (staying because you ought to) • Focus of Commitment: the people, places, and things that inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization • Affective Commitment  sense of sadness • Erosion Model: a model that suggests that employees with fewer bonds with co-workers are more likely to quite the organization • Social Influence Model: a model that suggests that employees with direct linkages to co- workers who leave the organization will themselves become more likely to leave • Continuance Commitment  sense of anxiety • Employees in this type of commitment often need to stay for both work and non-work reasons • Embeddedness: an employee’s connection to and sense of fit in the organization and community • Embeddedness strengthens continuance commitment by providing more reasons why a person needs to stay in his or her current position • Normative Commitment  sense of guilt • Exit: a response to a negative work event in which one becomes often absent from work or voluntarily leaves the organization • Voice: a response, often in reaction to a negative work event, in which an employee offers constructive suggestions for change • Loyalty: a passive response to a negative work event in which one publicly supports the situation but privately hopes for improvement • Neglect: a passive, destructive response to a negative work event in which one’s interest and effort in work decline • Psychological Withdrawal: mentally escaping the work environment • Daydreaming: a form of psychological withdrawal in which one’s work is interrupted by random thoughts or concerns • Socializing: a form of psychological withdrawal in which one verbally chats with co- workers about non-work topics • Looking Busy: a form of psychological withdrawal in which one attempts to appear consumed with work when not performing actual work tasks • Moonlighting: a form of psychological withdrawal in which employees use work time and resources to do non-work related activities • Cyberloafing: a form of psychological withdrawal in which employees surf the internet, e-mail, and instant message to avoid doing work-related activities • Physical Withdrawal: a physical escape from the work environment • Tardiness: a form of physical withdrawal in which employees arrive late to work or leave work early • Long Breaks: a form of physical withdrawal in which employees take longer-than-normal lunches or breaks to spend less time at work • Missing Meetings: a form of physical withdrawal in which employees neglect important work functions while away from the office • Absenteeism: a form of physical withdrawal in which employees do not show up for an entire day of work • Quitting: a form of physical withdrawal in which employees voluntarily leave the organization • Independent Forms Model: a model that predicts that the various withdrawal behaviours are uncorrelated, so that engaging in one type of withdrawal has little bearing on engaging other types • Compensatory Forms Model: a model indicating that the various withdrawal behaviours are negatively correlated, so that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one less likely to engage in other types • Progression Model: a model indicating that the various withdrawal behaviours are positively correlated, so that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one more likely to engage in other types • Progression model has received the most scientific support • Trends that affect commitment include the diversity of the workforce and the changing employee-employer relationship • Psychological Contracts: employee beliefs about what employees owe the organization and what the organization owes them • Transactional Contracts: psychological contracts that focus on a narrow set of specific monetary obligations • Relational Contracts: psychological contracts that focus on a broad set of open-ended and subjective obligations • Trends such as downsizing, use of temporary workers, and outsourcing may also cause employees to define their contracts in more transactional terms • Perceived Organizational Support: the degree to which employees believe that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being • From an affective commitment perspective, employer strategies could centre on increasing the bonds that link employees together • From a continuance commitment perspective, the priority should be to create a salary and benefits package that creates a financial need to stay • From a normative commitment perspective, the employer can provide various training and development opportunities for employees, which means investing in them to create the sense that they owe further service to the organization Chapter 4  Job Satisfaction • Job Satisfaction: a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences • High job satisfaction = positive feelings; low job satisfaction = negative feelings • Employees are satisfied when their job provides the things they value • Values: things that people consciously or unconsciously want to seek or attain • Value-percept Theory: a theory that argues that job satisfaction depends on whether the employee perceives that his or her job supplies those things that he or she values • Dissatisfaction = (V want V have x (Vimportance • Value-percept theory also suggests that people evaluate job satisfaction according to specific facets of the job • Pay Satisfaction: employees’feelings about the compensation for their jobs • Promotion Satisfaction: employees’feelings about how the company handles promotions • Supervision Satisfaction: employees’feelings about their boss, including his or her competency, communication, and personality • Co-worker Satisfaction: employees’feelings about their co-workers, including their abilities and personalities • Satisfaction with the work itself: employees’feelings about their actual work tasks • Boring jobs might be easier, but they’re not necessarily better • Three “critical psychological states” make work satisfying • Meaningfulness of Work: a psychological state indicating the degree to which work tasks are viewed as something that counts in the employee’s system of philosophies and beliefs • Responsibility for Outcomes: a psychological state indicating the degree to which employees feel they are key drivers of the quality of work output • Knowledge of Results: a psychological state indicating the extent to which employees are aware of how well or how poorly they are doing • Job Characteristics Theory: a theory that argues five core characteristics (variety, identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback) combine to result in high levels of satisfaction with the work itself • Variety: the degree to which a job requires different activities and skills • Identity: the degree to which a job offers completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work • Significance: the degree to which a job really matters and impacts society as a whole • Virtually any job can be important • When employees feel that their jobs are significant, they can see that others value what they do and they’re aware that their job has a positive impact on the people around them • Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual performing the work • Autonomy comes in many forms including the freedom to control the timing, scheduling, and sequencing of work activities, as well as the procedure and methods
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