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ORGS 5100 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Dispositional Attribution, Fundamental Attribution Error, Reinforcement

22 pages139 viewsFall 2016

Department
Organization Studies
Course Code
ORGS 5100
Professor
Thomas Medcof
Study Guide
Final

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York
ORGS 5100
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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ORGS Quiz 1 Notes
Chapter 2 Personality and Learning
Personality the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual
interacts with his or her environment
Dispositional approach focuses on individual dispositions and personality. Individuals possess
stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours
Situational approach characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and
punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes and behaviour
Importance of dispositions versus the situation is known as the person-situation debate
Weak situations not always clear how a person should behave
o Personality has the most impact in weak situations due to loosely defined roles, few rules,
and weak reward and punishment contingencies
Strong situations clear expectations for appropriate behaviour
o More defined roles, rules and contingencies, personality tends to have less impact
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
Five basic but general dimensions that describe personality
1. Extraversion
o The extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy
o Tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, and assertive
o Extraversion is important for jobs that requires a lot of interpersonal interaction, such as
sales and management
2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability
o Degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control
o Often associated with confidence and self-esteem versus self doubt and depression
3. Agreeableness
o The extent to which a person is friendly and approachable
4. Conscientiousness
o The degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented
o Most conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated, while less
conscientious people are irresponsible, lazy, and impulsive
5. Openness to experience
o The extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas
o More open people tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open people tend to favour
the status quo
Big Five dimensions are relatively independent, and tend to hold up well cross-culturally. Also
evidence that the Big Five traits have a genetic basis
Research Evidence
Big Five related to job performance, can indicate or lead to better job performance, but often
depends on occupation
Conscientiousness related to retention and attendance at work, and is also an important antidote
for counterproductive behaviours such as theft, absenteeism, and disciplinary problems
Extraversion has also been found to be related to absenteeism as extraverts tend to be absent more
often than introverts
Neuroticism and conscientiousness strongest predictors of motivation, with the former being
negatively related and the latter being positively related
o Openness not related to job satisfaction
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2
Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness and agreeableness have been found to relate positively
to the intensity of a job seekers’ job search, while neuroticism was negatively related
Locus of Control
Locus of control a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal
or external forces
High internal opportunity to control your own behaviour resides within yourself
High external believe that external forces determine their behaviour
Self-Monitoring
Self-monitoring the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in
social settings and relationships
If not concerned with scoping out and fitting in with those around them, low self-monitor
High self-monitors take great care to observe and control the images that they project
High self-monitors perform well in occupations that call for flexibility and adaptiveness in
dealings with diverse constituencies
High self-monitors tend to be more involved in their jobs, perform at a higher level, and are more
likely to emerge as leaders
Also likely to experience more role stress and show less commitment to their organization
Unlikely to feel comfortable in ambiguous social settings in which it is hard to determine exactly
what behaviours are socially appropriate
Would seem to be weak innovators and would have difficulty resisting social pressure
Self-esteem
Self-esteem the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
Behavioural plasticity theory people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to
external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem
Employees with low self-esteem tend to react badly to negative feedback
Organizations will generally benefit from a workforce with high self-esteem as they make more
fulfilling career decisions, exhibit higher job satisfaction and job performance, and they are
generally more resilient to the strains of everyday work life
Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour
Positive and Negative Affectivity
Positive affectivity propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a
positive light
Negative affectivity propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a
negative light
Positive and negative affectivity are emotional dispositions that predict people’s general
emotional tendencies
Proactive Personality
Proactive behaviour taking initiative to improve current circumstance or creating new ones
Proactive personality a stable personal disposition that reflect a tendency to take personal
initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s
environment
o Unconstrained by situational forces
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