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Study Guide

ORGS 5100 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Dispositional Attribution, Fundamental Attribution Error, Reinforcement

22 Pages
88 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Organization Studies
Course Code
ORGS 5100
Professor
Thomas Medcof
Study Guide
Final

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York
ORGS 5100
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
ORGS Quiz 1 Notes
Chapter 2 Personality and Learning
Personality the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual
interacts with his or her environment
Dispositional approach focuses on individual dispositions and personality. Individuals possess
stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours
Situational approach characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and
punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes and behaviour
Importance of dispositions versus the situation is known as the person-situation debate
Weak situations not always clear how a person should behave
o Personality has the most impact in weak situations due to loosely defined roles, few rules,
and weak reward and punishment contingencies
Strong situations clear expectations for appropriate behaviour
o More defined roles, rules and contingencies, personality tends to have less impact
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
Five basic but general dimensions that describe personality
1. Extraversion
o The extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy
o Tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, and assertive
o Extraversion is important for jobs that requires a lot of interpersonal interaction, such as
sales and management
2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability
o Degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control
o Often associated with confidence and self-esteem versus self doubt and depression
3. Agreeableness
o The extent to which a person is friendly and approachable
4. Conscientiousness
o The degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented
o Most conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated, while less
conscientious people are irresponsible, lazy, and impulsive
5. Openness to experience
o The extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas
o More open people tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open people tend to favour
the status quo
Big Five dimensions are relatively independent, and tend to hold up well cross-culturally. Also
evidence that the Big Five traits have a genetic basis
Research Evidence
Big Five related to job performance, can indicate or lead to better job performance, but often
depends on occupation
Conscientiousness related to retention and attendance at work, and is also an important antidote
for counterproductive behaviours such as theft, absenteeism, and disciplinary problems
Extraversion has also been found to be related to absenteeism as extraverts tend to be absent more
often than introverts
Neuroticism and conscientiousness strongest predictors of motivation, with the former being
negatively related and the latter being positively related
o Openness not related to job satisfaction
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2
Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness and agreeableness have been found to relate positively
to the intensity of a job seekers’ job search, while neuroticism was negatively related
Locus of Control
Locus of control a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal
or external forces
High internal opportunity to control your own behaviour resides within yourself
High external believe that external forces determine their behaviour
Self-Monitoring
Self-monitoring the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in
social settings and relationships
If not concerned with scoping out and fitting in with those around them, low self-monitor
High self-monitors take great care to observe and control the images that they project
High self-monitors perform well in occupations that call for flexibility and adaptiveness in
dealings with diverse constituencies
High self-monitors tend to be more involved in their jobs, perform at a higher level, and are more
likely to emerge as leaders
Also likely to experience more role stress and show less commitment to their organization
Unlikely to feel comfortable in ambiguous social settings in which it is hard to determine exactly
what behaviours are socially appropriate
Would seem to be weak innovators and would have difficulty resisting social pressure
Self-esteem
Self-esteem the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
Behavioural plasticity theory people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to
external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem
Employees with low self-esteem tend to react badly to negative feedback
Organizations will generally benefit from a workforce with high self-esteem as they make more
fulfilling career decisions, exhibit higher job satisfaction and job performance, and they are
generally more resilient to the strains of everyday work life
Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour
Positive and Negative Affectivity
Positive affectivity propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a
positive light
Negative affectivity propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a
negative light
Positive and negative affectivity are emotional dispositions that predict people’s general
emotional tendencies
Proactive Personality
Proactive behaviour taking initiative to improve current circumstance or creating new ones
Proactive personality a stable personal disposition that reflect a tendency to take personal
initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s
environment
o Unconstrained by situational forces
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York ORGS 5100 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com ORGS Quiz 1 Notes Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning Personality – the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment  Dispositional approach – focuses on individual dispositions and personality. Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours  Situational approach – characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes and behaviour  Importance of dispositions versus the situation is known as the person-situation debate  Weak situations – not always clear how a person should behave o Personality has the most impact in weak situations due to loosely defined roles, few rules, and weak reward and punishment contingencies  Strong situations – clear expectations for appropriate behaviour o More defined roles, rules and contingencies, personality tends to have less impact The Five-Factor Model of Personality  Five basic but general dimensions that describe personality  1. Extraversion o The extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy o Tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, and assertive o Extraversion is important for jobs that requires a lot of interpersonal interaction, such as sales and management  2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability o Degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control o Often associated with confidence and self-esteem versus self doubt and depression  3. Agreeableness o The extent to which a person is friendly and approachable  4. Conscientiousness o The degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented o Most conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated, while less conscientious people are irresponsible, lazy, and impulsive  5. Openness to experience o The extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas o More open people tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open people tend to favour the status quo  Big Five dimensions are relatively independent, and tend to hold up well cross-culturally. Also evidence that the Big Five traits have a genetic basis Research Evidence  Big Five related to job performance, can indicate or lead to better job performance, but often depends on occupation  Conscientiousness related to retention and attendance at work, and is also an important antidote for counterproductive behaviours such as theft, absenteeism, and disciplinary problems  Extraversion has also been found to be related to absenteeism as extraverts tend to be absent more often than introverts  Neuroticism and conscientiousness strongest predictors of motivation, with the former being negatively related and the latter being positively related o Openness not related to job satisfaction find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness and agreeableness have been found to relate positively to the intensity of a job seekers’ job search, while neuroticism was negatively related Locus of Control  Locus of control – a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces  High internal – opportunity to control your own behaviour resides within yourself  High external – believe that external forces determine their behaviour Self-Monitoring  Self-monitoring – the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships  If not concerned with scoping out and fitting in with those around them, low self-monitor  High self-monitors take great care to observe and control the images that they project  High self-monitors perform well in occupations that call for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealings with diverse constituencies  High self-monitors tend to be more involved in their jobs, perform at a higher level, and are more likely to emerge as leaders  Also likely to experience more role stress and show less commitment to their organization  Unlikely to feel comfortable in ambiguous social settings in which it is hard to determine exactly what behaviours are socially appropriate  Would seem to be weak innovators and would have difficulty resisting social pressure Self-esteem  Self-esteem – the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation  Behavioural plasticity theory – people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem  Employees with low self-esteem tend to react badly to negative feedback  Organizations will generally benefit from a workforce with high self-esteem as they make more fulfilling career decisions, exhibit higher job satisfaction and job performance, and they are generally more resilient to the strains of everyday work life Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour Positive and Negative Affectivity  Positive affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light  Negative affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light  Positive and negative affectivity are emotional dispositions that predict people’s general emotional tendencies Proactive Personality  Proactive behaviour – taking initiative to improve current circumstance or creating new ones  Proactive personality – a stable personal disposition that reflect a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment o Unconstrained by situational forces 2 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com General Self-Efficacy  General self-efficacy – a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Motivational, reflects an individual’s belief that he or she can succeed rather than how an individual feels about him or herself  Usually dependent on the number of times you’ve succeeded versus failed Core Self-Evaluations  Core self-evaluations – a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth  Four traits make up a person’s core self-evaluation; self esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control and neuroticism (emotional stability)  These traits are best dispositional predictors of job satisfaction and job performance Learning  Learning – a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience o Words practice or experience rule out viewing behavioural changes caused by factors like drug intake or biological maturation as learning  Stems from an environment that gives feedback concerning the consequences of behaviour Operant Learning Theory  Operant learning – learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences  Controlled by consequences that follow it  Used to increase the probability of desired behaviour and to reduce or eliminate the probability of undesirable behaviours Reinforcement – the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours  Positive reinforcement – the application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour o Food pellets being introduces after the lever was pulled o Tend to be pleasant things, such as food, praise, money, or business success o However, whether or not something is a positive reinforce depends on whether it increases or maintains the occurrence of some behaviour by its application  Negative reinforcement – the removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour o Response would prevent some event or stimulus from occurring o Usually aversive or unpleasant stimuli, and it makes sense that we will learn to repeat behaviours that remove or prevent these stimuli o Remember, always dependent on what happens with the stimulus o You increase an action in order to stop (remove) the negative stimulus Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement Confusing Rewards with Reinforcers  Give rewards, but don’t necessarily make them contingent on specific behaviours that are of interest to the organization Neglecting Diversity in Preferences for Reinforcers  Questionable to reinforce a workaholic’s extra effort with time off from work 3 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Need to explore appropriate stimuli Neglecting Important Sources of Reinforcement  Performance feedback – providing quantitative or qualitative information on past performance for the purpose of changing or maintain performance in specific way o Most effective when it is (a) conveyed in a positive manner; (b) delivered immediately after the performance is observed; (c) represented visually, such as in graph or chart form, and (d) specific to the behaviour that is being targeted for feedback  Social recognition – informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual or group to another Reinforcement Strategies  To obtain fast acquisition of some response, continuous and immediate reinforcement should be used  However, behaviour that is learned under these circumstances tends not to persist when reinforced less frequently or stopped  Behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement  Delayed, partial reinforcement facilitates persistent learning Reducing the Probability of Behaviour Extinction – the gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement  Works best when couple with the reinforcement of some desired substitute behaviour Punishment – the application of an aversive stimulus following some behaviour designed to decrease the probability of that behaviour  When actor learns that the behaviour leads to unwanted consequences, should reduce the probability of the response  Difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that NR a nasty stimulus is removed increasing that behaviour, whereas with punishment a nasty stimulus is applied after some behaviour decreasing that behaviour Using Punishment Effectively  Punishment tells you which activities are inappropriate, does not tell you which activities should replace the punished response  Need to provide substitute activities  Also detection is essential, will eventually figure out just how to get away with inappropriate behaviour  Provokes strong emotional reaction, strengthened by punisher not being in control of their emotions and punishing out of anger  Make sure the chosen punishment is truly aversive  Punish immediately  Do not reward unwanted behaviours before or after punishment  Do not inadvertently punish desirable behaviour Social Cognitive Theory  Emphasizes the role cognitive processes in regulating behaviour  Thinking about consequences of actions, setting performance goals, monitoring their performance and comparing it to their goals, rewarding themselves 4 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Triadic reciprocal causation, where personal factors and environmental factors work together and interact to influence people’s behaviour  Involves three components: observational learning, self efficacy, and self-regulation Observational learning – the process of observing and imitating the behaviour of others  Seeing what consequences they experiences, and thinking about what might happen if we act the same way  Attractive, credible, competent, high-status people stand a good chance of being imitated  Behaviour is vivid and memorable Self-Efficacy – beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task  Note the difference between task-specific self-efficacy and some of the general personality traits discussed earlier  Different self-efficacy beliefs for different tasks, as well as general self-efficacy  Cognitive belief, can be changed or modified in response to different sources of information o Performance mastery, observation, verbal persuasion and social influence, physiological state Self-Regulation – the use of learning principles to regulate one’s own behaviour  Observing one’s own behaviour, comparing the behaviour with a standard, and rewarding oneself if the behaviour meets the standard (i.e. self reinforcement)  When there exists a discrepancy, individuals are motivated to modify their behaviour in the pursuit of goal attainment (discrepancy reduction)  When individuals attain their goals, they are likely to set even higher and more challenging goals, a process known as discrepancy production  Discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production lie at the heart of the self-regulatory process Organizational Learning Practices Organizational behaviour Modification – the systematic use of learning principles to influence organizational behaviour  Research supports the effectiveness of OB mod programs  Can have a positive affect on safety, attendance, and task performance (stronger in manufacturing than in service organizations)  Money has a stronger effect on performance than social recognition and performance feedback, but all three together produces the best results Employee Recognition Programs – formal organizational programs that publicly recognize and reward employees for specific behaviours  Uses positive reinforcement Training Programs – planned organizational activities that are designed to facilitate knowledge and skill acquisition to change behaviour Behaviour modelling training (BMT) – one of the most widely used and effective methods of training, involving five steps based on the observational learning component of social cognitive theory  Describe to trainees a set of well-defined behaviours (skills) to be learned  Provide a model or models displaying the effect use of those behaviours  Provide opportunities for trainees to practice using those behaviours  Provide feedback and social reinforcement to trainees following practice 5 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Take steps to maximize the transfer of those behaviours to the job Chapter 3 – Perception, Attribution, and Diversity Perception – the process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provide order and meaning to the environment  Helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses  Key word is interpreting Components of Perception  Perception has three components – a perceiver, a target that is being perceived, and some situational context in which the perception is occurring The Perceiver  The perceiver’s experience, needs, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target  Past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations, which will affect current perceptions  Our needs may unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive  Perceptual defence – the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions o See what we want to see or hear what we want to hear The Target  Ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition  Perceivers have a need to resolve such ambiguities  Reduction in ambiguity might not be accompanied by greater accuracy The Situation  Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what one perceives  The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target  Perception of targets changes among different situations Social Identity Theory – a theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and members in social categories  Sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity  Personal identity is based on unique personal characteristics (interests, abilities, and traits)  Social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups, such as our gender, nationality, religion, occupation, and so on  Both help us answer the question Who am I?  Categorize ourselves and other to make sense of an understand the social environment  In addition to forming self-perceptions based on our social memberships, we also form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories  Define members of a category relative to members of other categories  SIT helps us understand how the components of the perceptual system operate in the formation of perceptions. We perceive people in terms of the attributes and characteristics that we associate with their social category relative to other categories  Thus, your perception of others is a function of how you categorize yourself (e.g. student) and your target (e.g. professor) 6 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  If the situation changes, so might your categorization and the relation between the perceiver and target  People tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and favourable ways than those who are different and belong to other categories. Because of this SIT is useful for understanding stereotyping and discrimination A Model of the Perceptual Process  When perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, perceiver is very open to the informational cues contained in the target and the situation surrounding it. Needs information to based perceptions of the target and will actively seek out cues to resolve the ambiguity  Gradually encounter some familiar cues to enable making of a crude categorization of the target  Being to seek out cues that confirm this, and ignore or distort cues that violate these initial perceptions  This shows perception is selective, as perceivers do not use all the available cues. Those that they do use are given special emphasis o Results in efficiency  Perceptual system works to paint a constant picture of the target (perceptual constancy)  Perceptual consistency refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogenous picture of the target Basic Biases in Person Perception Primacy and Recency Effects  Primacy effect – the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions  Recency effect – the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions Reliance on Central Traits  Central traits – personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver Implicit Personality Theories – personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together  Ex. Expect hardworking people to be honest Projection – the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others  Capitalistic businessperson assuming that other businesspeople favour the free enterprise system and disapprove of government intervention Stereotyping – the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives Attribution – the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour  Many rewards and punishments in organizations are based on judgment about what really caused a target person to behave in a certain way Dispositional attribution – some personality or intellectual characteristic unique to the person is responsible for the behaviour and that the behaviour reflects the “true person” 7 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Explain behaviour as a function of intelligence, greed, friendliness or laziness Situational attribution – the external situation or environment in which the target person exists was responsible for the behaviour and that the person might have had little control over the behaviour  Explain behaviour as a function of bad weather, good luck, proper tools, or poor advice Three questions to guide our decisions as to whether we should attribute the behaviour to dispositional or situational causes  Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently? (Consistency cues)  Do most people engage in the behaviour or is it unique to this person? (Consensus cues)  Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation? (Distinctiveness cues) Consistency Cues  Consistency cues – attributes cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behaviour over time  Tend to perceive behaviour that a person performs regularly as indicative of his or her true motives o I.e. high consistency leads to dispositional attributions o If inconsistent, likely lead to situational attributions Consensus Cues  Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others  In general, acts that deviate from social expectations provide us with more information about the actor’s motives than conforming behaviours do  Unusual, low consensus behaviour leads to more dispositional attributions than typical high- consensus behaviour  Person who acts differently from the majority is seen as revealing more of his or her true motives Distinctiveness Cues  Distinctiveness cues reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations  When a behaviour occurs across a variety of situations, it lacks distinctiveness, and the observer is prone to provide a dispositional attribution about its cause Biases in Attribution Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations  Tends to happen when we make judgments about the behaviour of people other than ourselves  Don’t give enough weight to the situation  Often discount the strong effects that social roles can have on behaviour  Many people whom we observe are seen in rather constrained, constant situations that reduce our appreciation of how their behaviour may vary in other situations. Fail to realize that the observed behaviour is distinctive to a particular situation Actor-observer effect – the propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently  Observer might be busy committing the fundamental attribution error, the actor might be emphasizing the role of the situation in explaining his or her own behaviour 8
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