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Philosophy Meaning of Life Exam Review .pdf

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York University
PHIL 1100
Shyam Ranganathan

Philosophy Exam Review Basic Areas Of Philosophy - Philosophy: concerned with universal and general theories - Universals: qualities, characteristics, defining traits, categories, not specific items at some place but categories or items / events - Generality: ranging over a wide area, not of narrow significance - Purpose of Philosophy: question, debate, apply, discover theories of a universal and general nature on a variety of topics - Philosophy of the World: - Texts can be found all over the world - Philosophy comes from greek meaning love (philo) of wisdom (sophia) - Defining event in philosophy evolution:natural science understood as an autonomous purist, separate from philosophy (display distinction) - Other important event is separation from social science from philosophy -Traditional Topics in Philosophy - Metaphysics: reality - Epistemology: knowledge - Logic: reason - Ethics: values that pertain to social relevancy ( laws of persons) - Aesthetics: beauty - ** question of the meaning of life all pertain to the above^^ - Misconceptions about Philosophy - Answers to philosophical questions are subjective - If this claim^ is true then it itself is subjective and cannot be true (more objective answers as they deal with generalizations - Everything in philosophy is relatively true, no absolute truths - If this is true than it is an absolute truth and then it contracts itself - Philosophy is concerned with what or how we think - Philosophy is concerned with how we all think, independently of their particulars - Science has objective proof to answer its questions: philosophy does not - The objective proof of science can always be falsified by new evidence yet to be discovered - Truth of mathematics are objective and indubitable but philosophy is always uncertain - Advanced areas of math are as controversial as philosophy - Philosophy is irrelevant to other areas of research - Major areas of academics begin as offshoots of philosophy (and if serious) end in philosophy. If not they are silly and ill considered Argument: From Reasons and Beliefs to Premises and Conclusions - Philosophical Arguments (the backbone of philosophy and consist of reasonsfor a conclusion) - Inductive Arguments (Bread and butter of social sciences) - Attempt to establish a conclusion (thesis) based on observation or evidence - Possible for evidence to be in favour of conclusion for inductive argument to be strong, conclusion false, while inductive argument on the whole seems credible - Deductive Arguments - Only credible if it is not possible for the premises of the argument to be true and the conclusion to be false (
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