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PHIL 1100
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PHIL 1100 – Tutorial Notes Week 2 - 3 - Premise follows conclusion - Deductive validity – conclusion cannot be false if the premises are assumed to be true - Soundness – implies validity of the argument and all true premises Plato - Virtue “Aiete” Excellence - Pre-Socratics | Sophists - Phuselogoi (Care of the Self/Soul) - Plato was told by the oracle that he was the wisest man - “Know thyself” – take care of himself at first - Says he has a “daimon” or conscience or God - He says it’s a matter of wisdom to know and understand life - Plato uses an argumentative and questionnaire way to prove others wrong - He never quite reaches or provides a full answer - Critical doubt is better than unjustified beliefs - Aquestion of what justice is in the soul - Aradical objectivist - Worse to have an unhealthy soul than body Week 4-5 Epictetus - The good - Volitions (What we can control) - Trouble in the soul - Suffering - Struggle or striving is meaningless - Good of cosmopolitan (human kind) Epicurus - Four Truths 1. Don’t Fear God or the gods (avoid anxiety) 2. Don’t Fear Death (it’s inevitable and does not harm anybody) 3. The good is easy to get (natural vs. luxuries) 4. The bad is easy to endure (pain is temporary) - The examined life, Coinel West,Ask a Taylor(Youtube) Nagel - He asks the question “Is death a bad thing?” - He thinks death reduces the possibilities one has in life. - Death is a deprivation of pleasure/possibilities of lie - Life being taken away (Removal of opportunities) *We fear the suffering along the way and the unknown after death - The good - Opinions (doxa) | Good / Truth  Intelligible | Reason - Arête = Virtue | Excellence - Aristotle understands virtue as a function (secret plan) of an organism - Intrinsic goods or good-in-itself (Good for its own sake) o Intrinsic goods must be sufficient - Instrumental goods help you achieve other things o (ex: money or power) - Eudemonia – an active life of virtue consistent with a rational principle in a whole life o more complete and bigger sense of happiness (including flourishing and fulfilling) - Contemplation = Best Pleasure o Knowledge for its own sake Week 6-7 – Marx and Hume Marx - Depression o Loss of Happiness o Loss of a Loved one o Failure to fulfill goals o Wrong goals – incurs a loss of meaning o Loneliness | Alienation o Hopelessness  Ill health o Loss of self-esteem o Poor structure of society - Advice is useful if Explanatory andAction-guiding - Four levels of alienation o Alienation from the product  The object has to meet alien standards o Alienation of labour  Your creative capacity becomes alien o Alienation from species-being  Our essence becomes mere existence o Alienation from other people  Other people become mere means Hume - If suicide is wrong; it is because it violates a duty to: o God o Our neighbours (society) o Ourselves - Common sense - Sceptical | Reason - 1. Suicide is impious only if it is impious to alter the period of your own life - 2. If it is impious to alter the period of your own life, then taking medicine is impious - 3. Taking medicine isn’t impious - 4. It isn’t impious to alter one’s lifespan
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