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PHIL1100ExamAns.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 1100
Professor
Henry Jackman
Semester
Summer

Description
1Explain what reasons Socrates gives in the Crito for not fleeing Athens even though staying means certain death Explain why you do or dont find these arguments sound Crito visits Socrates in prison and tries to persuade him to escape because the majority expects it and wont blame them he would be alive to teach philosophy could raise his young children and be with friends Socrates is not moved because he considers injustice to be feared more than death he would also prefer his children as citizens of Athens than to be in exile with him and public opinion does no one real harm or good so his friends should not worry He further explains his main reasons for not escaping because he thinks doing so would be unjust and it is never correct to act unjustly He argues that escaping would harm the city and since the city is like a parent then escaping is like harming a parent which is unjust and therefore escaping is an unjust action that would lead to the corruption of the soul He also feels that life is worthless with a corrupted body and since the soul is more important than the body life is worthless with a corrupted soul Socrates believes the life of an escapee is worthless and therefore it is better to dieThe arguments by Socrates are not sound because we could question the analogy between parent and state Obedience to our parents is temporary that we outgrow eventually by learning to make decisions however Socrates means it is a requirement to obey the state until we die Furthermore we cannot always predict the consequence of an action So by escaping the city there are number of possibilities that could be beneficial to the city for example incorruptible warders that will not collect bribe better security and fortificationsFinally it could be argued that it is unjust for a parent to kill a child as a form of punishment2In the Apology Plato claims that no evil can happen to a good man but in the Crito he suggests that life is not worth living with a corrupted bodyExplain why one might think that these two views are in tension with each otherDo you think that there is a way for Socrates to resolve this tensionIf so suggest how he could do itIf not explain why notThe statement appears as though the good person is untouchable no matter what the person is going through it does not change the persons virtue The claim here no evil can happen to a good man is that such things we consider as evil death disease poverty etc are not really evil but what can really hurt are the things that damage our soul namely injustice The good pertains to virtue and ones value comes from virtue which is selffostered and not the consequence of others and endures even after death Socrates argued further that even if they kill the person it is not harm because either the person goes into an endless deep sleep or an after life On the other side Socrates giving an opportunity to escape argues that it would be unjust and it is never correct to act unjustly He argues that escaping would harm the city and since the city is like a parent then escaping is like harming a parent which is unjust and therefore escaping is an unjust action that would lead to the corruption of the soul He also feels that life is worthless with a corrupted body and since the soul is more important than the body life is worthless with a corrupted soul Socrates believes the life of an escapee is worthless and therefore it is better to die The tension that arises from these two views is that every person is responsible for their actions You can only become corrupt by going against your values and virtues To which Socrates believes it is better to die3 Socrates claims that no evil can happen to a good man either in life or after death while Aristotle argued that external events could seriously damage the quality of a persons life Leaving aside the question of whether the good person can be harmed after death present these competing positions about what harm can be done to the good person during their life and explain why you find one or the other more persuasiveSocrates is stating that the things we consider as traditional views of evil death disease poverty etc is sometimes misinterpreted as meaning these things cant happen to a good person This is obviously false however the he suggests that the things that can harm us are those that damage our soul such as injustice He believes that driving someone into exile depriving him of his civil rights and even killing someone will not cause him harm Socrates believes that the body is not as important as the soul therefore only acting unjustly can we harm ourselves In contrast to Socrates Aristotle believes a man can be harmed in life if there are bad circumstancesHe believes if we are unlucky we will not have a good life no matter how good we areAristotle also believes we need some external things to live a good lifeExternal things on their own will not be enough to have a good life though you still need virtue You can be virtuous and not happy but you cannot be happy without being virtuous I find Aristotles more persuasive because we need external goods to be happy but I also agree with Socrates that you cannot be harmed in the afterlife4How does Epictetus recommend that we view our friends and family and why does he make such a recommendation Would you adopt this sort of attitude towards them if you could explain why or why not Epictetus believes that unhappy feelings dont come from an object or person but from our attitudes towards it How we value something determines how we feel if it is taken away Stoics believe we should remove aversion from all things that we cannot control viewing family as unimportant since there is no control over whether they live or die Epictetus explains this as if kiss your child or your wife say that you only kiss things which are human thus you will not be
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