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PSYC1010 - MIDTERM NOTES (Chapters 1,2,12).pdf

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York University
PHIL 1100
Henry Jackman

York SOS Students Offering SupportPSYC 1010 ExamAID Test 1 Review PackageBryan Choibryan888yorkuca Alexandra Olteanuolteanu7yorkuca Tutors 1York SOS Students Offering Support Preface This document is intended for PSYC 1010 students who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the course midterm It has been created with regard to Dr Jubis FallWinter 20102011 sections and is subject to change for future coursesReferences Weiten WMcCann D 2010 Psychology Themes and variations 2nd Canadian ed Toronto ON NelsonContents Tips for General Midterm Success2Chapter 1 The Evolution of Society3 Chapter 2 The Research Enterprise in Psychology15 Chapter 12 Personality Theory Research and Assessment24 Appendix B Statistical Methods37 Tips for General Midterm Success1 Use acronyms and other mnemonics to remember concepts For example use an acronym like ocean to remember the Big Five personality traits openness to experience conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness and neuroticism2 Do practice multiple choice questions These practice questions will assess your understanding of what youve learned and help you identify areas of weakness They are found in textbooks on textbook companion websites andor provided by your professor Psychology Themes and Variations has questions in it and on its online companion website3 Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions For example if you know one of the answer choices is incorrect then an all of the above answer found in the same question must also be incorrect4 Practice writing short answer questions If you know ahead of time what the questions will be on the short answer section make a list of essential points you want to address for each question and practice writing it on paper If you dont know what questions will be on the short answer section you could try scanning the material to find concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question Again you can make a list of essential points for each and practice writing it Even if they dont show up on the short answer section doing this helps solidify what you learned5 Get adequate sleep the night before your test Sleeping at night helps consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during the test the next day but your brain has not effectively learned the material 2York SOS Students Offering SupportChapter 1 The Evolution of Society From Speculation to Science How Psychology DevelopedPsychologystudy of the mind from Greek psyche means soul spirit or mind logos means study of a subjectWilhelm Wundt German professor who wanted to establish psychologys independence from philosophy and physiologyfavoured scientific approach which matches the intellectual climate of his time1879 established the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig1881 established first psychological journalcredited as founder of psychologyprimary focus was on consciousness awareness of immediate experience o psychology became scientific study of consciousnessgenerated around 54000 pages of books and articles in careerstudents from all over came to study with Wundt and brought what they learned back to their respective placesG Stanley Hall contributor to rapid growth of psychology in Americastudied briefly with Wundtestablished first American psychology lab and journaldriving force behind establishment of American Psychological Association APA o first APA presidentpsychology flourished in the US possibly because American universities were more open to new disciplines as opposed to traditional European universitiesStructuralism psychology should analyze consciousness basic elements and investigate the relations of these elements ex sensations feelings images perceptionwas at ends with functionalismadvocated by Edward Titchener studied with Wundtused introspection careful selfobservation of ones conscious experiences mental processes o subjects trained to be objectively aware of their experience o subjects typically exposed to auditory tones illusions visual stimulationsweakness dependence on an individuals reflection no objective evaluation Functionalism psychology should investigate functionpurpose of consciousnessintroduced by William James a brilliant American scholarchose to pursue psychology rather than medicinepublished Principles of Psychology 1890o probably most influential text in psychologys history 3
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