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PHIL 2050
Michael Gadsden

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PHIL2050 EXAM REVIEWClassical Natural Law Theory 1What is a teleological metaphysicsTeleological metaphysics is the view that we understand knowledge of the world from the end or purpose or telosThis is also included in social institutions natural objects and artifacts ex rivers trees we understand these things because of their function Aquinass view of Law In Aquainass view of law he says Law is nothing else than an ordinance of reason for the common good made by him who has care of the community and promulgatedp3435 It is a general definition of law and applies to all types of law in Aquinass view Aquinass definition considers the operation of certain objects or the purpose of lawtelos a general view of law which has its own particular end all things in the universeGovernment officialsor any other political group has to act in accordance to the common good of the peopleTwo things to note about Aquinass definition i it identifies individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for the existence of law ii its a general definition of lawTypes of Laws External law dive reason for gods plan of the universe perfection of the whole universe god has control of the community promulgation of law is all things which apply to external lawNatural law part of external law which is understood by humans common good is human happinesscare of the community is by god promuglation of law is in the human mind we use reason and rational thinking for our decisionsHuman law rules standards are determined by how humans follow natural law common good is order in society living and it is promuglated through kings queens legislation and statuesDivine law Rules revealed by god common good is spiritual good care of the community is in gods hands promuglation is from 10 commandments or other commandments by god 2In Aquinass view what is human law and why is it necessary How does it relate to civil obedience or disobedienceHuman law is rules and standards which humans follow through natural law and the use of rational thinking Human law is derived from the natural law in two ways 1Deduction a more specific conclusion follows directly from a principle of the natural law Eg from one should do no harm it follows directly that one should not murder2Determination there is more than one possible conclusion choice is required by societyEg it might be a general principle of the natural law that everyone ought to contribute to the maintenance of the state but human choice is required to determine eg how much tax we ought to pay how often often we ought to pay to whom etc3In Aquinass view are there any conditions under which one should follow an unjust lawLaws maybe unjust when in contrary to human goods and to the respect of the end when an authority places a burden on his subjects a unauthorized uses of powerby force by a leader not just b laws which serve only the interests of somebenefits of only certain ppl c laws imposing unequal burdensslavery labor burdens d human laws opposing the Divine lawno laws can oppose the word of god
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