1. reliance on science and positivism- to get to the truth of something-
western context but also other culture
-every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified. We
use science to get truth. Well “science has proven that ____”. Trying to
get us to believe that’s true.
1.Value-neutrality- we look at Facts as disconnected or dissociated
from value system- no objective, no ideology. Facts and values are separate. It’s just
2.Objectivity- remove subjective bias from inquiry and claims about
truth. Be able to reproduce same results. Need the same results anywhere-
ideological leaning is removed.
Man of Reason
-Study of knowledge from a feminist perspective
-male paradigns vs. female qualities, divide between maleness and
-dominant epistemological systems
-feminist episomologists have a problem with the “view from nowhere)
-calls attention to the subject, how we individually experience the world
Critiquing classic western philosophy?
-problematizes male produced knowledge as universal
-have a problem with the subsitutionalist assumption
-each subjects are emdodied, located and particular
emotions are a social construct
-Feminist epistemologists contest: Thinking knowledge is universal, objectivity,
emotion-western tradition wrongly conceptualizes knowledge focuses on rationality
Dispassionate investigator- -The Myth of the dispassionate investigator- similar to
disembodied knowledge. It’s impossible. Oxymoran, inconsistency. Those who have
power- that a dispassionate investigator- they have a lack of awareness of emotions.
They’re lack of awareness of emotions, they think their doing this neturally. They
don’t think they doing this neturally, their ignoring their emotions, don’t know
emotions are playing a role. -Reason gets associated with dominant groups, gets
valued. Stereotypes of women’s emotionality. The myth of the dispassionate
investigator upholds, lifts up, and values the epistemic authority of the dominant
group. The dominate group gets attached with not being emotional, being dispassionate they get associated with rationality. Uphold the values those who
have control, and power. Makes subservient those who are “too emotional” ignore
whatever points of view they have.
“ . . . rather than repressing emotion in
epistemology it is necessary to rethink the relation
between knowledge and emotion and construct
conceptual models that demonstrate the mutually
constitutive rather than oppositional relation
between reason and emotion”
The Dumb View-
The positivist approach. Minimizes human emotions to physical sensations. It’s
actually ignoring the internal cognitive element of emotions. The implication is that
emotions are ignored.
Emotion Social Construction- Emotion as a social construction
-Jagger- 1. We learn how to properly emotionally respond to situations.
Children who are taught to fear stranger. We learn in our cultures, they’re not
universal. What types of emotional expression are appropriate. Some are “touchy-
feely” others are stoic. What we should feel, how we should express. We
conceptualize and give language to structure emotion. Some languages have 20
words or different ideas of love. The way we define emotion helps us emote. We
participate in defining what’s acceptable and what’s not acceptale.
-“emotions are uncontrollable.” Wrongly seen as passive. Have both mental and
physical- in some ways involuntary in other ways chosen. Any knower- emotion is
-Emotion is necessary for human survival. Fear can be helpful.
Outlaw emotions-“People who experience conventionally
unacceptable, or what I call ‘outlaw’ emotions,
often are subordinated . . . . may even doubt their own sanity”
-emotions that go against the grain, we don’t value them. People of colour are more
likely to become angry at a racist joke. Their response doesn’t fit in with what’s
valued, their emotional response is not taken seriously. They get dismissed, doesn’t
lead to any change, doesn’t lead to any discourse- leads to- internalizing
embarrassment, they believe they’re over reacting. If it’s a cycle. Then they might
stop reacting with anger, which is what the dominant ideology would want. This
happens over time. Derogatory jokes subjugate already subjugated people. No real
funny racist joke. Sometimes people claim or flip the hierarchy with their joke- or
you could just be upholding the hierarchy. That might just be an example of them
internalizing the “appropriate” emotional response.
-people who experience conventionally unacceptable emotions often are
subordinated.- may doubt their own sanity.
Neglected, misrepresented, ignored, not valued emotions- they are frowned upon or
judged in a negative way.
-They are unconventional emotional responses- not that their uncommon, but that
they don’t conform to the dominant ideology. example-person who responds to a racist joke instead of humour.
-They are important for a few reasons:
1.The outline new ways of investigating/developing knowledge.
2. Develop more perspectives. Open up the discourse to include emotions.
3. We challenge the types of emotions that are acceptable.
Kantian woman- Sentimentality and Emotionality
• “Kant described the women of his time as creatures of ‘many sympathetic
sensations, goodheartedness and compassion,’ as well as ‘very delicate feelings in
regard to the least offence’ . . . . to have an emotional life as a woman . . . is always
edging the excessive sensitivity that is a ground for dismissability”
-sentimentality-demonstrating actions that are associated with compassion and
loving (associated with the feminine.)
-emotionality- expressing those emotions- feminine-knee jerk emotional reactions,
impulsive- someone who cannot control their emotions- women are associated-
have an unhealthy emotional life.
-women from the outset are considered to lack the full range of rationality.
Emotions as social constructions
Example of how emotion are constructed- bitterness-
-The collaboration of certain mode of expression (recounting of injury) with a
certain mode of response (failure to listen) forms bitterness
-publicly formed emotion- because you can’t feel bitterness alone- it has to do with
how one is received. If theirs no uptake, it just gets viewed as bitterness. Involves
more than just the “feeler”-it’s public.
-It’s a useful strategy to ignore. Useful way to dismiss peoples anger.
-Uptake- “Uptake”- when there is none, this is a form of emotional dismissal;
-example of the woman going to the mechanic- she’s angry at what he’s
messing up. He refuse to uptake her anger, dismissing and displacing her emotions.
Calls her crazy bitch and changes the subject. Could be legitimate anger. Doesn’t
acknowledging what she’s feeling.
-bitterness is defined as a refusal to forgive- delegitimizes their response. It is a
failure way to demonstrate that anger- it’s a cycle. People don’t do consciously when
we dismiss people. Instead of focusing on the event, we focus on the emoter- we
dismiss whatever it is their feeling instead of focusing on the issue
Ultimately shifts any possibility of those who are in power to do something about
the events or actions.
-The uptake is different when a man or those in power. They don’t get dismissed.
Doesn’t turn to bitterness. Their anger gets dealt with by the public. -The burden of proof-Frye- it’s minority view, the burden is on the minority who is
expressing emotion/knowledge. on without uptake the burden of proof is continues
-lack of responsibility of those who incite the anger (if they are the one who incites
the anger)- someone who can do something about the anger, ignores it.
GILLIGAN & SHERWIN
-Gilligan-How moral development of men and women differs.
-Considered a pioneer in gender studies- comes with a lot of controversy
-Important concepts: voice, difference, moral development in men and women.
-Moral development varies among genders –different tendencies in moral
development. Her writing is based on empirical data.
-Men and women seem to have different tendencies in both psychology and morality
-empirical, but essentialist
-Male norms instead of human norms, men have used as a measuring stick for
morality- so of course women fail. They fail morality tests.
-Critiques Freud and Kohlberg- rooted in male bias.
Kohlberg has 6 stages- based on ego
-Stages1&2 : kids, with only themselves
-Stages 2&3: older children, more aware of moral conventions, do good
things to get rewarded, avoid punishment .
Stages 5&6: Highest, for adults.
-quick recap- man named Heinz steals a drug which he cannot afford to buy the drug
in order to save his life. Should Heinz steal the life of his wife. Should he steal the
-They don’t subscribe to gender stereotypes.
Jake (12 year old) says he should
Amy (12) says there has to be another way
Jake values life over the druggests property-
Ethic of care and justice-
Ethic of Care
-Moral significance is found in relationships, connections with others.
-reasoning from particulars; social context
-steps from notion of nonviolence
-It has referred to as an “indirect”, “empathetic” and even a “narrative mode”
Ethic of Justice-
-The subject is separate from others (i.e. autonomy);
-impersonal(subject aims to be detatched from issues)
-relies on abstract principles
-stem from notions of equality -rationaliy, universality
-Standpoint epistemology- reliable. Recognizes the positions of knowers.
Sometimes people who are othered their knowledge might be more valuable. Their
knowledge might be more valuable. It could have more merit than the dominant
group’s and their ideologies.
-Orr’s goal- make more room for people and their arguing styles, less exclusive.
Informal logic can offer that, to be less exclusive. The repore between arguers- could
be just as important, usually the idea is just to figure out if their argument is strong
or weak. But with her but try too figure out if theirs a better repore between people
after the disagreement. There needs to be room of how people actually argue.
Kuperberg & Stone
-Anti-feminism is similar to backlash- Anti-feminist, choose options that go against
feminist movements, but they say the women’s movement have given the option.
Their “choosing” to maintain subjegation.
-Present day trends in anti-feminism
-Twilight- Bella and Edward- anti-feminism. If you choose an oppressive
relationship or whatever- it’s still oppressive even if it’s a choice. 50 shades of grey.
Three themes & Inconsistencies
1. Family First, Child Centric
-They reference the case for staying home- altruism. Rhetoric- Show the
hardship of two working parents, poor kids. Women are doing something
wrong or inadequate if they don’t go home. Men are being left out of the
-Role of women is displacing wife. only 1 out of 98 wanted their wife to
have an experience of a career. Their ability to stay home this is based on
husbands salaries. The whole ability rests on their salaries.
In order for women to stay at home, rests of men’s salaries, the choice
rests with them.
1-Not a lot of choice in the workplace, can’t work and be mothers- flextime,
emphasis on capitalist ventures (Frye- systematic barriers). They are pushed out.
2-many of those who opt out, many women part-time from home. (Creative
measure). It’s not that women really don’t want to work, they just feel like they
don’t have a real choice.
2. Mommy Elite- Macatosh- privilege. (not really privilege, Guise of privilege.
According to proff)
-Do only women who have financial freedom have “choice” or that these privileged
women have to escaped the sex binary. Women who are left out. Some women stay at home because they can’t pay for day care. Do both of these stay at home moms
3. Making choice
-choosing family over job.
3-Why don’t more women get to the top- they choice to. Only 50% of the sample size
had only positive things. %0
4- ½ negative or mixed feelings about leaving the workplace.
5 -some of these mothers planned to re-enter the workplace. (Had to leave, not
wanting to leave, wants to go back)
Ascribe value to motherhood and child rearing. Ascribe value to materialism
without essentialism. Women are not the only people who can be maternal. There
are those feminist who devalued women’s roles. They connect being a mother being
negative. There are also those who revere the natural mother role. Conflicting
views. Ruddick wants to value materialism, but she thinks anyone can do them. She
characterizes maternalism- says it’s intellectualized (not mechanical or physical),
it’s a social category. It’s a social construct. To be maternal requires- preserving the
life of children. Not just your own. Helping children to grow, you ensure that
children become productive adults in society. This requires reflection and judgment,
and those mental processes are not separate from emotion. Sometimes we live
through our children, that’s not good. Typical ways we think about parenting can be
Avoids essentialism- associates materinalism with virtues- cheerful and humble.
Cheerful is not blindly ignores problems. Humility- not self-debasement, thinks
about the other.
-Everyone in the community has to assume this role. She collapses the binary.
Obliterates the dichotomy, not just about the nuclear family. Not jus men taking on
more work, it’s community.
-Love and attention- associated with emotion usually. But for Ruddick, it’s an
intellectual capacity. To love a child takes an effort, need to make judgment, -if you
control the child, to try to live through that child- not intellectual love. Judgment and
reflection is needed.
-critiques feminists who advocate public work over private work is a move that
supports patriarchy. In the public sphere, there is competition and hierarchy,
-Men need to learn from the get go that fatherhood is just as important as
-The verb to mother-care and nuturance.
-To father- to protect.
-Criticizes Ruddick for collapse
-For Hooks, to be paternal should hold the same significants
-public or state childcare.
What would Hooks change to make opting out more feminist friendly. So Hooks
would say that women themselves need to value their own work, not just those who
are in power to value it.
-Western society says that careerism is the most valuable. Need to be an ideological
change- what we value needs to change. We need to deconstruct capitalist
Ideas that her theory rests on-
(1)Low wage work (factory or service work) they are not meaningful, creative jobs
that lead to freedom or satisfaction. Physically exploitative.
(2)psychologically exploitative. Women receive the message via sexist ideology that
their work in the labour force is not valuable or contributes to society. It’s it out of
financial necessity for themselves, but their not contributing to society at large. Full-
time or career paths, they are considered good or contributing. If a woman does
work it’s out of financial/material necessity for themselves, but not for society.
(3) Difference between basic human needs (physical and mental) to be content and
actual financial independence for women. Types of work that don’t exploit, but that
doesn’t mean that a woman is financially independent.
-example- we can put a price on housework and childrearing, but won’t lead to
financial independence for women.
Feminist approach to work –
-Should end poverty for all women.
-Ending economic exploitation of women.
-Support welfare and welfare reform. Stop viewing them as parasitic. Recognizes
subjugation and unfairness, get rid of the ideology that those who receive welfare
are lazy, worthless. We need to look at why people need welfare. It’s usually a
degrading process to get welfare.
Creativity over jobs-example, job sharing, high income jobs get shared between
people. Creativity over what jobs look like.
Allocation of money- learn how to manage the money they get.
Resisting compulsions into consumerism (it’s political- boycott, spending less)
Attribute value to all work that women are typically associated with women I
society. A focus on careerism needs to be lessened, there needs to be value on work
within the home. Needs to be a shift. Housework child rearing, not seen as valuable.
Violence isn’t just caused by men
-White supremacist capitalist patriarchy- Systems of domination are inter