PHYS 1010 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Protein, Enzyme, Cytoplasm

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Published on 29 Mar 2019
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PHYS 1010
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Topic 5.3 5.4 Disease & Defense Against Disease
Pathogen a disease causing organisms
- May be:
- viral (HIV, chicken pox)
- bacterial (TB, strep)
- fungal (athletes foot)
- Protozoan (malaria = plasmodium)
- Flatworm
- Roundworm
How to get infected?
- airborne; waterborne; food; insect transmission; STI; skin
Barriers to infection skin, mucous membranes
Specific defenses production of antibodies to a specific antigen
Antigen a molecule (protein) recognized as foreign by the immune
system
Antibody a globular, y-shaped protein that recognizes an antigen.
- produced by B-cells (a type of leukocyte)
Antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections.
- Inhibit the function of bacterial (prokaryotic) proteins, preventing
protein synthesis. Will not affect a virus, because a virus uses host
cells to reproduce.
- Bacteria have short reproductive time, so can easy evolve to a
resistance to an antibiotic. Super bugs
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Production of Antibodies
1. Pathogen invades body
2. Antigen detected by macrophage
3. Macrophage engulfs pathogen, and displays the antigen on the
outside of its membrane
4. T-Cells detect the antigen activate B-cells.
5. B-cells produce antibody. B cells clone themselves
6. Antibody binds to antigen “neutralizing it”
7. Memory T-cells and B-cells are left behind. These reduce the
response time to a second exposure.
Handouts of diagrams/illustrations
Types of T-Cells
Helper T-cell activate B-cells to produce antibodies
Killer (cytotoxic) T-cell destroys infected body cells.
E.g. Cancer cells.
Memory T-cell remains in body to recognize antigen again
Suppressor T-cell shuts down immune response
Vaccination
- Stimulates antibody production and formation of memory cells without
causing the disease.
- Uses a weakened or dead pathogen.
- If person becomes exposed, immune response will be quick and person will
probably not be infected again.
Immunization deliberate exposure to the pathogen to produce memory
cells against it.
HIV handout
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