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POLS1000 Midterm exam notes.docx

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York University
Political Science
POLS 1000
Janice Newton

POLS1000 Midterm exam notes 5/12/12 Alienation – alienation, according to Marx, is the oppression of the working class by the bourgeoisie by separating the produced good from the workers in a capitalist mode of production Authority – the legitimate right to exercise power to influence people into doing something that they not have done. There are three types – traditional, charismatic and rational-bureaucratic. Autonomy – self-direction. The freedom to think, choose and act without the influence of another person or group. Bourgeoisie – a term used in Marxist analysts which refers to the social class that controls the means of production – the capitalist class Bureaucracy – a group of non-elected officials within an institution whom implement the rules, ideas and functions of their institution. Often refers to the government institution that carries out the decisions of the legislative branch of government. Civil Rights – citizenship rights that are necessary for the protection of an individual’s freedom. They ensure a citizen’s right to participate in the civil and political life of the state. Examples are the freedom of speech, freedom of assembly. Civil society Organizations – non-profit associations of a wide variety of people that participate in political activity in an effort to change the policies of governments and intergovernmental organizations. Class Struggle – the constant disparity between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat caused by a capitalist means of production. Class struggle is a key concept in Marxism. Eventually, Marx believed that the prole will rise up against the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution. Consent – the concept of having to have the people agree to be ruled before authority can be exercised over them. Democratic Deficit – the sense of distrust in politicians and political institutions experienced by the people. It reduces public participation in politics due to the perceived inability of the individual to influence public policy. Direct Representation – the idea that individuals give consent to another individual who makes decisions on their behalf. This is usually done by voting. Elites – a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of political power, usually by being very wealthy. Elites are a central concept in competitive elitism, where they are perceived to be the ones “making the decisions”. Liberalism – a political ideology that stresses the freedom of individuals. In this sense, liberalism allows citizens to do as they wish, without interference from others. A liberal government’s main focus should be on ensuring the safety of the citizen. The government should only work on matters in the public sphere. Legitimacy – the concept of ruling by moral, social or legal rightness.
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