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School
York University
Department
Political Science
Course
POLS 2900
Professor
Sirvan Karimi
Semester
Fall

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Plato II- The Just society 1. Re-cap : Virtue in the City of Soul a. A definition of Justice ( 443d) b. Nature/ Reality vs Convention c. Politics as soul crafting d. Degeneration of the Best city – timocracy, oligarchy , democracy, tyranny e. Degeneration of the soul: misery of the tyrant – critique of democracy ( moral and political) 2. Cultivating Philosopher Kings a. Education of moral reform ( continued) b. Communal Property c. BK V : The – 3-waves d. Female guardians- community of wives- children e. Philosophers must rule 3. Plato’s 2 World View – A. True Philosophy Vs. Sophism Philosophy as love object Ship analogy b. The Forms ( eg. The perfect square) c. The divided line d. The good ( analogy of the sun) f. The cave – analogy for education, moral reform, duty to rule. 4. How Just/Happy The Just soul is not only the better human soul but the most real and true human soul so you are closer to being a human being. Plato division between Nature People always try to out do each other and gain wealth – part of human nature- Plato – justice ruled by reason is not a constraint of nature but is demaded by human nature . Sophists – nature is imperial factual material Plato believes in the existence of absolute moral truths - they are as much a part of nature as physical objects around us. Very few ppl can understand the ideas ( the forms) exist in reality but different level of reality in which lots of ppl cannot access and only a few ppl can access it after years of training and education. They are more real than the everyday reality that we experience all around us. If we understood these universial truths we would be enlightened Central to the purpose of a just city- that the few ppl who are enlightend are in control In order to get these souls we have to nurture them. Book 2 and 3 – great deal of emphasis on education and training, for Plato the importance of the city is to live a good life, not in a material sense but in an ethical sense. Politics is not about providing security for laws to regulate our behaviour – laws only deal with the symptons of bad behaviour, you need to shape peoples souls to regulate themselves. Book 4 – socartes – sick person taking all kinds of medicine to treat his illness but does not change his lifestyle to get better. If city is properly ordered in a just manner than u do not need all of these laws. Speciliaztion – rulers of the city would be the cities best inhabitatns – why philoshpers must rule – only they after inesive education they have knowledge of the forms, only accesble to a few ppl, b/c they understand these truths only they will rule the city , and the city will be ruled in a waking reality, only people who are fully awaked can rule. They have an intellectual understanding of the truths .2. Have superior characters . City is just if wise guardians rule over everything else, anything else would be unjust, if produces got to much power than city would be ruled by self interest. Class specialization – producers within the class – potter became farmers – few probs not that bad Producing class to ruler – unjust arrangement – Would not lead to happiness, Degenration of the ideal – Occurs at the level of the city and soul – Book 8 – Decline of just city – from ideal state P.K with help of auxillerys – producers are happy. Degeneration – most degenerate form – tyranny! – each of the less than perfect forms rulling element in own self interest, not interest of the whole., decline is astycle one level of degeneration leads to the next, each level worse elemts take on position of ruler. 1 level – Timocracy – Rule by P.K, 2. Auxiliary – State such as Sparta, they elevate themselves to position of ruler – ( essay !!!!!) Plato – Eugenics – best must breed with the best ! Human nature leads to errors in some calculations. Auxiliary interested in political power – children of these rulers would lower interests such as getting wealth – enslave producers for wealth – Oligarchy – When auxiliary gives into their desire for wealth. – Rulers are slowly interested in accumulating wealth - Some ppl getting very rich , beggers emerge. Inertly instable – Revolution from below,poor will conquer the rich, will kill some ppl and expel some. Plato low opinion of democracy – Democracy around a freedom, results are beautiful of all constituions, however democracy is unstable – because its operating values are freedom and equality, freedom gets defined as doing whatever you please, constantly changing opinion . Emerges is a mob rule and culture od excess and intolerance, opens door for a tyrant. Emerges as a champion for the ppl, appeals to ppl’s greed and their fear. Gains their favour by canceeling debts and redistributing lands. Purges enemies, persecutes anyones with a trace of courage and nobility in soul, does not want any challengers. Book 9 – each element of the soul has its own pleasure – 3primary types of – lover of philosophy, lover of profit, lover of winning. Different types of ppl love different types of things. Every class gets what they desire – If wrong class of ppl rule then it’s bad. If anyone else rules than philosophers than they will rule by self-interest! 1. Happiness of individual is not issue, happiness of the whole, just city – interest of all, satisfaction for all classes 2. More removed from unreal state, rulers more unhappy. Oligarchic soul is dominated by profit and restraint of appetite is caused by losing money. Plato – tyrannical soul is height of misery, soul controlled by small part of appetite of element. Ruled over himself by the lowsum appeities, which ppl have during sleep. Exercises these passion. Tyrant – book 9 , 579 b and d - Just man is 729 times happy than the unjust man Tyrant is enslaved by own passions. Plato – democracy – 2 worst form of association from degeneration just above tyranny 1. Democracy is not a stable political form , will degenerate in to tyranny 2. Democracy fosters moral corruption moral corruption is by demogogs and sophist telling ppl what they want to hear and gain freedom, but it is not true freedom, they are not free from enslavements from own appetites, encouraged by doing whatever they want they are free agents. Democracy does not force ppl to improve themselves. To become virtious- Rule of the best, proper system of education When this happens a harmony is achieved, will be as happy as nature allows, lower appetites not given free grain, go for occupations they are naturally suited for, Essential ordering is needed - Philosophers must rule - how do we make them- city must have these characteristics, these ppl will be tested throughout various stages of their lives to see if they are worthy, children are to be exposed to correct kinds of music, poetry and physical education. Selected youth that progress will go on to the honours and pains of politics and warfare. Be under protection of elders. Only the best of each stage move on to the next stage. Mathematics age 20, book 7, Age 50 education is complete – has moral and intellectual goals, virtue and knowledge is bit just about intellectual persuasion, times when ppl cannot be persuaded as some people will not listen , some ppl not ready to hear the truth. Rulers would have no interests on power that others would want from political power. 517 They rule as a duty- Plato reinforces system of education – Communal Property – both property and families are not supposed to be private – ensure unity and guard against the dangers of selfish interest. Add stability to political system by fostering unity, book 3 415-417. Important concept for plato- wealth in the hands of rulers always causes corruption,if rulers had private possessions this would lead to conflict and distract rulers from main task of ruling, the main task of ruling is to look after the public good. Specialization – book 3 417 - private property distracts guardians and corrupts them. Guardians are provided with food, clothing and housing from taxation from their citizens, but will not earn a surplus, will live like soldiers in a camp, they are stronger and wiser than other citizen’s. Guard dogs guarding a flock. Happiness for the Polis is most important ! Less threats, the guardians would be like fierce hunting dogs, no outside threats as the city would not accumulate wealth and power, so not appealing to be invaded. Book 5 – Two propositions 1. Equal training and education of women in guardian class- Wives of guardian watch dogs, should be able to have role of guardian. Women should have different tasks from Men. Their differences should not preclude women from becoming guardians . Female bares the children. Virtue –modestly and self restraint over there passions- A womans crown is a modest silence. The glory of a woman is to be least talked about amongst men. Female citizens, legal minors, left in female quarters of household. Polis – no longer played direct role in poltical affairs, women had no role in poltical affairs. Plato – Republic was not to be taken literally, suggestions about women equality. Meant to be a theoretical exercise and never to be put into practice . 2. Communal breeding and child bearing- community wives and kids – biological breeding and social unity, no private families, breeding of pedigree birds and hunting dogs. Only the best should be allowed to produce offspring’s together in their primes. Accomplish by using temporary sacred marriages, partners would be chosen by open lottery, rulers would rig lottery, so best man would be with best woman all the time, vice versa for most inferior. Social implications – unity and harmony - Private families foster private pleasures. Living communally where no child knows their biological parent , then ties of family ties can be extended, transform kinship ties from devise force to unifying force. Everyone will have the same goal and reach pleasure in pain. Plato does not care about achieving equality – main concern overall is not to emancipate any group . Could this unity and fraternity be extended to city as a whole. Education to entire city, Could ppl be more virtious w/o philosophers. City set up as a model in the search for true justice - Beautiful painitng less worthy because it cannot be found in practice? 473.d Cities will have no respite from evil nor will the human race unless philosophers rule as kings or current kings become philosophers . Republic – Justice exists as a universal absolute truth. Ship analogy- what if the common sailor is allowed to decide who should sail the ship, and where to sail it . What would these ignorant ppl call the captain ? Stargazer, even though by stargazing you can navigate. True nature of navigation, true captain must pay attention to the seasons, winds, stars etc.. Proper role of philosopher is not understood, and ppl take it up to please the crowds. Sophists- 493b. Power and knowledge must be joined – Philosophers must be kings Lovers of philosophers desire the kind of learning that makes clear to them the being that is and always …. 485b Strive for timeless and unchanging knowledge. The forms – absolute ideas - World of forms to not apply to mathematics but social and moral worlds as well, there are perfect worlds, beaurty, justice , courage and love. All moral acts participate in the acts in the different virtues and moral acts. No action in this world can be perfectly just nor good. Courage, justice etcc. Can only be understood after years of training. Forms are only accessible to reason. Divided Line – 26 509 – progression of reality, basic world of sense perception to the world. Corresponding are levels of knowledge, Shadows are dependant of objects. Unthinking animal existence, corresponds to a level of knowledge called imagination, lowest form of awareness, level up, sensory objects – knowledge being belief and opinion – sensible world – above – world of the ideas, abstract realm, lower forms mathematical – level of knowledge called thought, the top are higher forms, beauty, truth m, knowledge so on – understanding, Forms are understood as things set down before you, grasped , when they are understood the process of knowledge is reversed , very top is the highest form p the form of the good, knowledge which independent of everything else, absolute, pinnacle of all knowledge and reality, NEXT LECTURE – Aristotle 389 – 322 BC 1. Plato and Aristotle a. Realism vs idealism Avoiding anarchonism b. Equality and hierarchy ( different justifications) c. Practical vs. theoretical knowledge ( the ethics) d. A’s Metaphysics – Form and matter, teleology e. The good for man ( the ethics) - Happiness/ human flourishing - Happiness as an activity of the soul - As division of the soul 2. Virtue of happiness a. Doctrine of the mean ( character virtues) b. Intellectual virtue ( wisdom and prudence) c. Relation of Ethics Politics 3. The Politics a. Note on the text b. Overview c. C. The Polis ( book I) Natural, prior to individual , a compound whole. Natural hierarchy d. The household, Private property Necessary vs commercial Types of ruling Master/slave Husband/wife Parent/child e. The problem of slavery and Aristotles defense Plato is laying out the knowledge that is needed ( the forms) Questions and answers are not enough, we need vigorous type of education system , properly managed polis and organized polis Philosophers are sculptures because as they work, they work for justice and beauty and moderation . Trying to shape reality according to the ideal . For must ppl journey for enlightenment is to difficult, Escaped prisoner just like philoshper who saw the light, does not want to go back to the cave nor rule and returns to the cave as a duty, the city can only be governed by the good being the philosopher. Philosophers ruling, life of political rule would not be the best life for those who are suited to rule, because these people would chose to follow philosophy, they want to seek out the good, the great universal truths of reality, one response to this potential problem is how much happiness can be in this city, . Aim of just city is not to make on class happy but to spread the happiness amongst everyone to make all the people/classes happy. Important – happiness of the whole – In case of philisophers, a case were functions are mixed, plato is clear is tht one group should not meddle in the tasks of another group. Duty – contradiction – Plato – Athenian education and legal system should be rejected, different than historical Socrates who felt an obligation to the laws of Athens - The city nurtured Socrates and felt that he had a duty to respect the education, customs and laws of Athens. Plato does not see this , The duty of public service does not exist to any cities including Athens, Existing philosophers have no duty to offer themselves just as Socrates did. Just soul – orderly moderate soul who would not seek after honours, offices or glory, would seek honours for his soul. He would still want to take part of politics but in his own kind of city, not his fatherland , No dutty of obligation to existing city states, philosopher can withdraw himself from the city life. Without ideal cities there no philosophers to take over Aristotle was a student in Plato’s academy, interest in Biology, medicine, ethics, philoshpy and politics Also a tutor to one of the kings of the greek city states – Alexander the Great. Aristotle funded his own school called the lyseome, He taught there for 12 years, whole range of subjects taught there, deal with theoretical questions of good and on and practical concerns, - we see influence of Plato in his work of philosophy, Aristotle was more popular represented of philosophy - His ideas were accepted in the later middle ages not Platos ( hahah sucker) His theories were more acceptable towards modern ideals, Plato was an idealist and Aristotle was a realist, through his school Aristotle collected data about constitutions of different city states . Aristole rejects plato’s attempt to connect the study of politics with the study of the deepest medaphysical truths, politics is a separate subject that can be learned and taught, politics is not just an unfortunate necessity that we need to organize the polis – Politics is essential to the good life and virtue, Both plato and aritotle, see the best Polis as achieving the same end, purpose of the Polis to facilitate the good life, moral and intellectual development of its citizens. For Aristotle and Plato, central political virtue is the virtue of justice, for polis to achieve it’s goal it needs virtue, if it does not, citizens will not be able to live a fully ethical life, citizens will not be able to become fully human beings, if the polis is not just than the constitution itself will be destroyed. For Aristotle, justice is emphasized in political rule,. He doesn’t see politics as neutral or value free, but closer to ethics Aristotle is contrasted with Plato for being realistic and practical while Plato was not, however Aristotle is no way a realist in contemporary western culture, common sense understanding of it – put questions of value completely aside, Aristotle is not doing this, his realism has a value and goal behind it, for Aristotle political issues and debates are not just winning, losing or power politics but have to do with honor, nature, and virtue of the good life Both are compared - both believe that democracy are corrupt forms of institutions, Aristole, the best form of constitution is where the best ppl rule, aristocracy or kingship = complete virtue, practical wisdom – not obtained by majority of ppl, civic virtue, inclination to follow rules, neither plato or Aristotle were promoting equality – both were conservative by creating political organizations hierarchy, it was a necessity to have a hierarchy, duty from the polis Both – are conservative. Plato - radical, begins with ideal and how human society can be reorganized to be ideal, his picture is hierarchical he is also radical as it is a complete overhaul of current society and this overhaul takes place though reason Aristotle – begins with what exists, particular rather than the idea, he focuses on experiences and received opinion and true knowledge, he aims at the best under the circumstances of what is practical, Plato begins with ideals, of virtues of the good that he accepts as universal and unchanging forms, Aristotle by contrast the good is something in the sensible world, and this ideas are all central concepts to the politics, more laid in another text called the ethics. First distinction – book 1 – Theoretical and practical knowledge – He questions the value of knowing the good, the form of the good is not in fact directly applicable to the practice of ethics and politics. He views ethics and politics as forms of practical politics and not Theoretical - They are study to get an end, to help us live our lives, Moral knowledge is a guide to action, we study ethics not to know what goodness is but to become good men, otherwise it would be useless. Ethical knowledge is south to change the world - he argues it is fundamentally different that the kind of knowledge in the republic, Plato talked about Theoretical knowledge, the objects of this knowledge are the unchain an universal truths which are not affected by our actions. Politics and ethics though have different ends, - The are studied not as ends of themselves, their subject matter is inexact changing and particular . Plato – the world is not 2 separate realms. But division between sensible and reasonable world, Aristotle, the world is made up of combination and form – The form of a square, Plato – the ideal form of the square give meaning to a square but the forms cause their particulars, philosophers – distinction between sensible and intelligent world. Acorn – the purpose is its development to be , strives to be an oak tree, the oak tree is a form or purpose of the acorn. The form – the purpose is prior to the particular, it is a completion and process of every particular, he applies this to his political and ethical theories (Aristotle) everything could be understood in terms of teleogical development, What is unique about human beings – is our rational activity, our special function has to do with Functionality, happiness has to do with the soul, has to do with flourishing, Moderation is the mean between insensibility A modest silence is a womans crown. Happiness is an activity of the soul. Book 3 politics – good citizen, good man Good as human being – intellectual wisdom of human virtue, knowledge about goodness is not good enough, we must put our knowledge in real practice, for most ppl it is not possible to develop as human beings unless they are brought in proper human polis. Polis built on two lesser forms, the household and the village, the household rests on natural distinction between men , women and slaves, comes into existence to fill daily needs, village results in combination of number of households, Polis is the most self sufficient and inclusive area, not just economic self suffiecieny but moral motion , the polis is different that household and village by its purpose, polis hs developed for sake of life and continues for sake of good life. NEXT LECTURE th October 11 2012 Aristotle 2 1. Polis as “natural” continued a. As prior to the individual – re cap b. A – compound whole c. Naturally hierarchical 2. The private realm a. Importance of the household b. Necessary vs. commercial property c. Natural Ruling – Master/slave, husband/wife, parent/child d. Defense of slavery – as “ natural” as just – Not a forced relation e. Rule of men over women Womans “ deficiency” Soul and body f. Differences in soul , different principles of rule g. Differences in moral/character virtues h. Aristotle as apologist or critic 3. Critique of Plato a. Implicit critique – theory of virture b. Explicit Critique Plato’s = communism Universal vs. differentiated standard. 4. Citizenship of Constitutions a. Definitions b. Excellence of the good citizen of the good man c. Conflict, stability, overview books 406 d. Distribute Justice ( proportional equality) e. Classification of Constitution ( good vs degenerate/perverse forms) monarchy – tyranny Aristocracy – oligarchy Polity – democracy On basis of purpose and numbers of rulers f. Class distinctions g. Democratic vs oligarchic justice h. Realizable ideals – the polity Mean/middle constitution Aim of moderation Limits of pwer ( vs Plato) Stability Education for moderation 5. Aristotle’s ideal Ethos of the state The good life The good for man Virtue and politics c. Structure Optimal size Character in the mean Parts and wheels. Not envision a group of actors taking up political activities, these citizens need to come from somewhere, in order for citizens to pursue this free public life they need to have a private life, He places an important on private realm, the polis, the political association that gained prominence over the household, household still had importance. Relations within household, realm of household is important because the necessitates of life are taken in the household, this frees citizens to participate for politics in public life, life in the household prepares citizens for political virtue, citizens must rule over household slaves, over women and children in the households, not an activity of domination, put an activity that needs reason and virtue ,3. It is important because that household rests on private property. Both the private and public property life are necessary for the polis life, Ownership of ones on house, goods and slaves are necessary for citizens to participate in public life. Does not celebrate private property as an end to itself, politics cannot be used to gain wealth and property because this leads to oligarchy, Aristotle makes distinction between necessary property and property that is commercial. Necessary property – household management, running of the household, need and therefore approved of, the goods that are produced are mainly used for use and distribution Trade – depends on exchange, therefore Aristotle says this is justifiable since the wealth comes from money itself rather than the exchange of goods. Unnatural, does not fulfill purpose of property, Worst of all, money leading and charging interest, most unnatural way of getting money as it has nothing to do with production nor the good of the polis. Private property is the means of which public political activity Is needed. Natural ruling of the household. Types of relations within the household, breaks it down, 3 pairs of relations Master/slave Man/woman Parent/child Each of these relationships are hierarchical. It is natural and for the best, each relationship has its own rule - Responding to receives opinions and counter arguments on these subjects, is slavery a just institution? Empirical facts, received opinions about these facts- lays out problems and difficulties that are at issue, and he responds to these problems, 1 relationship – problem that he is addressing, that master over is slave not part of nature, the only difference is conventional ……. Slavery is unnatural because freeman and slave are natural equals, slavery is unjust because it treats those who are natural equals badly, slavery is unjust and unnatural because it is a relationship of force. Slavery is natural, slavery is just in the sense that unequal’s are treated unequally according to their proper natures. Not a relation of force, the slave benefits from the relation as the master. Slavery is natural , what actually exists? Slavery was an important and accepted part of all greek cities, it is natural as it commonly exists, nature does nothing in vain, not a sufficient argument, The nature or purpose of the polis is to develop the capacity of its members, to enable them to be equal human beings, fully actualized., this contradicts slavery. The slave as well as master both benefit, the slave has a different nature, natural slaves have limit naturally capacities, these capacities can only develop to their fully capacity by being ruled. Exp.Soul over the body, this is necessary. These are ppl who have no independent power of reason, these ppl it is natural and best if they serve others, those ppl who are different as body from soul and human from beast, the best thing to do is use their bodies, they are natural slaves, they are like tools, apart of the masters property, they are like living tools, are a part of him. Slave befits as well, because of his natural inferiority, he cannot develop his own capabilities, The natural slave can be ruled by reason only if this is imposed from outside, the natural slave is a part of the slave. Reasons over the appetites, How can slaves be slaves of nature? He discusses argument, if one person conquers another in battle then they are in rule, goes back to argument of natural slavery, concludes where there is an interest in common and fit between master and slave, master is ruling properly, this relationship is beneficially, be one of friendship, friendship does not have to be an equal relationship, majority of slave master relations, does not answer gaining slaves by conquest. Husband – wife : Many ppl who were slaves were not natural slaves, but there for natural reasons. Women were sub ordinal to men in greek world, natural inferiority of women, in reproduction the male is superior to the female, the case in all animals, in the sexual act, the male is the active parterna dn the female is the passive partner, the male provides the new life and female provides the matter. Would should take care of their bodies but rest their mind, women should not be married off nor have kids before the age of 18. The female is the imperfect version of the male, we should look upon the female state as being a deformity, which is a regular pattern within nature, the souls of women are inferior, the female soul is lacking in rational capacity, these difference take in to account different rules in household. Like statesmen over his fellow citizens. Parent – child – it is present but undeveloped, the need of different types of ruling, different types of political rule, This is temporary until child can reason for himself, lead to different degrees and virtues, distinction from plato, plato – one standard of virtue, ppl fall short or live up to the standard, Aristotle – womens souls are inferior and different, have different types of virtues, Limited virtues needed for slave to be good, they require obedience and courage to follow orders properly. The superior, the relationship is not domination over superior over the inferior, responsibilities, develop virtues into the inferiors, relations should not be on force, The master has the fullest form of human virtue, father is responsible to rule over wife and children in correct way to foster their virtues, barbarians – rule women as slaves, barbarians treat women this way because they have a lack of reason to rule properly. Women make up half the population of free population so they must be educated. Courage was a masculine virtue, not conception of female courage, the greatest honour for a woman is to be as invisible as possible Women and slaves have different virtues than free men. Better part of the soul must rule over the lower parts, Plato’s conception of good – the forms, Aristotle,- politics and ethics are practical issues, it is not applicable to guide us, does not apply to all forms of human associations, singular theory of virtue, the height of virtue and height of knowledge has to to with knowledge of the forms, but Aristotle’s view on virtue is on the mean, the mean changes by different types of ppl and circumstances, reasons rule over appetites, Sparta, Crete – He admires their political stability, Property makes certain virtues, Taking away private property deprives people of happiness, He makes parrel arguments. How do you move children between classes. Community of family to bring unity. THE human purpose, what it means to be happy, social and political conditions affect this. Political associations should be organized to promote the common good, should be allocated on basis of merit, it should be the cities goal, who should be in charge, who should rule, he does not lay down the law for us, he asses their strengths and weaknesses and comes up with a middle ground. A citizen is not defined by residence or by legal rights, what distinguishes a citizen are his rights, entitled to participate in public office , different constitutions and ethics will arise, A constitution reflects the whole of society, in book 4 – The excellence of a good citizen is not the same as a good man. The excellence of a good man, needs character virtues, and intellectual virtues – practical wisdom. The goodness of a citizen will differ with different constitutions , only particular case where virtue of citizen and good man will meet, depends on the ruler, practical reason is required for the function of ruling, the ruler is able to make deliberate rulings. Ruler must learn to rule by being ruled over. Citizenship needs obedience and right opinion. Books 4-6 like independent piece of work within the original work, imperical studies, causes of conflict and stability amongst states, Oligarchy and democracy, sketches out second best state, books 5-6 are based on imperical studies of many different city states, done by aritotle and his students, book 5- nemesis of most greek political systems, violent and sudden regime changes, revolutionary regime stability, regime 6 - considers different ways to make them more stable, cultivation of moral life and good life is the purpose of the state, What works best under existing circumstances, ethical purpose of the state, concerned that the state be just, the justice of a state is not just a social convention but is an essential criterion in the evalution of different states, a just state Is more conducive to bring in happiness and human flourishing, will remain stable over time, Distributive justice, what you receive should proportional to your merit, what constitutes justice, this notion informs decisions of honours and offices, extent of political participation for decision making, who is excluded from citizenship. Different constitutions have different standards of distributive justice, Rulers can be one, the few or the many, they can be just, perverse of degenerate, Perverse – tyranny, oligarchy and democracy, rule is undertaken for the rulers not the good of all, the constitutions are the most far away from justice, especially tyranny, more like the rule of a master over a slave. Rest upon force, Man rule by possession of wealth or power, that is oligarchy, democracy is rule of the poor, Actually rulers rule in their own self-interest, Oligarchy, the rich are in charge, to maximize their wealth, in democracy the poor are in power to maximize their freedom, class distinctions, ownership of wealth, Democratic principle of justice, numeric principle, treating citizens the same by birth or citizenship, book 1 chap 1, democracy arose from those who are equal and thought they are un qualified to lead. Oligrachy for office, justified, ppl who are superior in some respects should receive a larger share of social local goods, honours and office A good polis exists for the higher good than accumulation of wealth, True principle of distributive justice, political offices assigned on bases of virtue and merit th October 11 2012 Aristotle 2 6. Polis as “natural” continued d. As prior to the individual – re cap e. A – compound whole f. Naturally hierarchical 7. The private realm i. Importance of the household j. Necessary vs. commercial property k. Natural Ruling – Master/slave, husband/wife, parent/child l. Defense of slavery – as “ natural” as just – Not a forced relation m. Rule of men over women Womans “ deficiency” Soul and body n. Differences in soul , different principles of rule o. Differences in moral/character virtues p. Aristotle as apologist or critic 8. Critique of Plato d. Implicit critique – theory of virture e. Explicit Critique Plato’s = communism Universal vs. differentiated standard. 9. Citizenship of Constitutions i. Definitions j. Excellence of the good citizen of the good man k. Conflict, stability, overview books 406 l. Distribute Justice ( proportional equality) m. Classification of Constitution ( good vs degenerate/perverse forms) monarchy – tyranny Aristocracy – oligarchy Polity – democracy On basis of purpose and numbers of rulers n. Class distinctions o. Democratic vs oligarchic justice p. Realizable ideals – the polity Mean/middle constitution Aim of moderation Limits of pwer ( vs Plato) Stability Education for moderation 10. Aristotle’s ideal Ethos of the state The good life The good for man Virtue and politics f. Structure Optimal size Character in the mean Parts and wheels. Not envision a group of actors taking up political activities, these citizens need ot come from somewhere, in order for citizens to pursue this free public life they need to have a private life, He places an important on private realm, the polis, the political association that gained prominence over the household, household still had importance. Relations within household, realm of household is important because the necessitates of life are taken in the household, this frees citizens to participate for politics in public life, life in the household prepares citizens for political virtue, citizens must rule over household slaves, over women and children in the households, not an activity of domination, put an activity that needs reason and virtue ,3. It is important because that household rests on private property. Both the private and public property life are necessary for the polis life, Ownership of ones on house, goods and slaves are necessary for citizens to participate in public life. Does not celebrate private property as an end to itself, politics cannot be used to gain wealth and property because this leads to oligarchy, Aristotle makes distinction between necessary property and property that is commercial. Necessary property – household management, running of the household, need and therefore approved of, the goods that are produced are manily used for use and distribution Trade – depends on exchange, therefore Aristotle says this is justifiable since the wealth comes from money itself rather than the exchange of goods. Unnatural, does not fulfill purpose of property, Worst of all, money leading and charging interest, most unnatural way of getting money as it has nothing to do with production nor the good of the polis. Private property is the means of which public political activity Is needed. Natural ruling of the household. Types of relations within the household, breaks it down, 3 pairs of relations Master/slave Man/woman Parent/child Each of these relationships are hierarchical. It iis natural and for the best, each relationship has its own rule - Responding to receives opinions and counter arguemtns on these subjects, is slavery a just institution? Imperial facts, received opinions about these facts- lays out problems and difficulties that are at issue, and he responds to these problems, st 1 relationship – problem that he is addressing, that master over is slave not part of nature, the only difference is conventional ……. Slavery is unnatural because freeman and slave are natural equals, slavery is unjust because it treats those who are natural equals badly, slavery is unjust and unnatural because it is a relationship of force. Slavery is natural, slavery is just in the sense that unequals are treated unequally according to their proper natures. Not a relation of force, the slave benefits from the relation as the master. Slavery is natural , what actually exists? Slavery was an important and accepted part of all greek cities, it is natural as it commonly exists, nature does nothing in vain, not a sufficient argument, The nature or purpose of the polis is to develop the capacity of its members, to enable them to be equal human beings, fully actualized., this contradicts slavery. The slave as well as master both benefit, the slave has a different nature, natural slaves have limit naturally capacities, these capacities can only develop to their fully capacity by being ruled. Exp.Soul over the body, this is necessary. These are ppl who have no independt power of reason, these ppl it is natural and best if they serve others, those ppl who are different as body from soul and human from beast, the best thing to do is use their bodies, they are natural slaves, they are like tools, apart of the masters property, they are like living tools, are a part of him. Slave befits as well, because of his natural inferiority, he cannot develop his own capabilities, The natural slave can be ruled by reason only if this is imposed from outside, the natural slave is a part of the slave. Reasons over the appetites, How can slaves be slaves of nature? He discusses argument, if one person conquers another in battle then they are in rule, goes back to argument of natural slavery, concludes where there is an interest in common and fit between master and slave, master is ruling properly, this relationship is beneficiall
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