POLS2900 Passage Identification

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York University
Political Science
POLS 2900
Michelle Mawhinney

Plato: The trial and death of Socrates: Euthyphro, "... if I say that it is the greatest good for a Apology, Crito, death scene man to discuss virtue every day and those - Political active, and represent specific issues within the given historical context other things about which you hear me - Everything is relative in the social universe conversing and testing myself and others, for - Politics to improve people's life/soul...first step the unexamined life is not worth living for through argument men, you will believe me even less." - Virtues: Wisdom, Courage, Moderation, and Justice (WCMJ) And it is certainly a happier Augustine: City of God - Chapter 15 - Our attention / existence on this earth is mere condition to be enslaved to a man appearance than to a lust, since the very lust for - Happiness for how things turn out -- the divine force of life -- nature. Brings you virtue and dominating -- not to mention others -- ravishes the hearts of mortals by a happiness. - Emergence of Lust, Passion -- great punishment. most savage mastery Living hell on earth because certain products of the general vital force sprJohn Stuart Mill: The Subjection of Women luxuriantly and reach a great development in this heated atmosphere and under this active nurture and watering, whilean development other shoots from the same root, which are left outside- Human race as a whole is progressing -- advancing wintry air, with ice purposely heaped all round them, haway from savage independence stunted growth, and some are burnt off with fire and di- Benefit women and society as a whole men, with that inability to recognize their own work which distinguishes the unanalytic mind, indolently believe that the treethe interest of women, but anyone grows of itself in the way they have made it grow, and - Writing from within liberal tradition -- cannot die if one half of it were not kept in a vapour bath anmake arguments on rights, but on utilitarian grounds in the snow Thomas Aquinas But because rational creatures share in the - Writing much later than Augustine - Rediscovery on politics and ethics --- integrate external law by using their intellect and into Christianity reason, we call their participation in the - Integrate reasons and faith external law "law" in the strict sense, since - Reasons must be aided the divine grace of God law belongs to reason, as I have said before - System of laws - external, natural, human and divine Thomas Hobbes: Chapter 21 - Of the Liberty Of But when the words Free, and Subjects - Liberty, freedom, absence of opposition Liberty, are applied to anything but - Human matter in motion Bodies, they are abused; for that - Political obligation base on consent - All the powers of the mind -- come down to physic - which is not subject to Motion, is not - motion in our body subject to Impediment - There is no separate entity in the body - Sense -- the imagination as being decay JS Mill: On Liberty But, indeed, the dictum that truth - liberty consists in doing what one desires always triumphs over persecution, is - The principle of freedom cannot require that he one of those pleasant falsehoods should be free not to be free. It is not freedom, to be allowed to alienate his freedom. which men repeat after one another - individuality is something that should be protected and nurtured till they pass into commonplaces, but - Liberty and individuality are essential to individual which all experience refutes. and social progress. For all men are by nature provided of notable Thomas Hobbes multiplying glasses (that is their passions and self- Of the Rights of Sovereigns by love) through which every little payment appeareth a great grievance, but are destitute of institution those prospective glasses (namely moral and civil - Commonwealth science) to see afar off the miseries that hang over - Generation and definition them and cannot without such payments be avoided - Naturally love liberty For I ask, whether in the wild woods and John Locke: On property - Social contract uncultivated waste of America, left to nature, - Limited government without any improvement, tillage or husbandry, a - State of nature, state of war thousand acres yield the needy and wretched - Right to property - Labor theory of property inhabitants as many conveniencies of life, as ten acres of equally fertile land do in Devonshire, - The doctrine on limited government and a right of where they are well cultivated? revolution - Concerns with the protection of private property John Locke: Of Property For this labour being the - The ends of government is to protect people's property unquestionable property of the - Night watchman state -- overlooking process. People behave within the rules -- freedom to do what they want labourer, no man but he can have a - My person being my own property --- what you own cannot produce the things to survive. Don't own the things that can reproduce your life right to what that is once joined to, at from day to day. The capacity to work -- labour on the market. body. Not for yourself -- alienating propertyur mind and your own least where there is enough, and as - Theorizing what it means to alien your own property -- in exchange you good, left in common for others. will get a wage for survival I am far from pretending that wives J.S Mill: On the Subjection of women - Freedom as a way of advancing human progress are in general no better treated than - Human progress is important towards human slaves; but no slave is a slave to the happiness same lengths, and in so full a sense - Benefit women and society as a whole - Emancipating women --- interest the intellectual of the word, as a wife is. capacity of society. I conclude all these forms of government are pestilential: the three good ones do not last long, and the three bad Machiavelli: On the different types of republic that exists ones are evil. Those who know how to construct - Failure of not learning from history constitutions wisely have identified this problem and have - Political concept -- Agonism...some form of conflict lead avoided each one of these types of constitution in pure to beneficial outcome, and would not be possible. form, constructing a constitution with elements of each ... therefore, advocating these conflicts should be embrace Such a constitution would be more solid and stable, - separation of religion from the state would be preserved by checks and balances, there being - System of government brought about based on the present in the one city a monarch, an aristocracy, and a circumstances democracy. I think it may not be amiss, to set down what John Locke: Second Treatise of Civil Government Of Political Power I take to be political power; that the power of - political power is a human creation - Not as the same as divine rule a MAGISTRATE over a subject may be - Political power -- must be differ from father, wife/husband, and distinguished from that of a FATHER over slave/master - Not a state of war or license -- individuals are subject to laws his children, a MASTER over his servant, a - natural freedom is not restraint by the law -- it is preserve and enlarge. Where there is no law, there is no freedom. HUSBAND over his wife, and a LORD over - Sovereign majority cannot govern his slave. - Government setup as a trust - To protect the interest of the majority It is true that labor produces for the rich wonderful Karl Marx: Estranged Labour Economic and philosophical things - but for the worker it produces privation. It - Labour theory of value produces palaces - but for the worker, hovels. It - Political econom
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