Study Guides (238,345)
Canada (115,087)
York University (9,811)
POLS 2940 (28)

Final Exam Prep

13 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
Political Science
POLS 2940
Sandra Withworth

Transfer pricing: NTBs (Nontariff barriers): Lecture 5, “in discussions of free trade vs. protectionism, important to spell out how protectionism is accomplished, what are the tools of protectionism that governments have at their disposal?: Usually, tariffs and NTBs, non- tariff barriers” Forms of restricting imports which aren‟t tariffs, such as quotas and ceilings (how many can be imported) pg. 331 Tariff: a duty or tax placed on certain types of imports as they enter a country  WHO:  WHAT: A tool of protectionism, a trade strategy that protects domestic industries against international competition, which are forms of restricting imports other than tariffs, such as ceilings or quotas.  WHEN:  WHERE:  SIGNIFICANCE: Commodity concentration pg. 420  WHO:  WHAT:  WHEN:  WHERE:  SIGNIFICANCE: EPZs (Export Processing Zones): pg. 380  WHO:  WHAT:  WHEN:  WHERE:  SIGNIFICANCE: Tied aid
 : The Montreal Protocol: an agreement on the protection of the ozone layer. States pledged to reduce and effectively eliminate the use of CFCs (chloroflurocarbons). Most successful environmental treaty in history pg.484 Negative rights: Lecture 3, first, second and third generation rights. Important: the difference between neg ative rights and positive rights MFN
 (Most Favoured Nation): Principle that if State A gives State B MFN status, State B receives the same treatment State A‟s MFNs receive pg. 342 IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development): Lecture 4, the monetary system created after World War II was known as Bretton Woods. Two important institutions created under Bretton Woods: the International Monetary Fund and the IBRD. Related to World Bank World Bank: Formally the IBRD, established in 1944 as a source of loans to help reconstruct European economy. Later main borrowers became countries of global south and Eastern European countries pg. 363 The Security Council: Lecture 1, related to League of Nations. the Security Council Veto. Security Council reform ... why this P-5? Comparative advantage: Lecture 5- related to MNCs.  Liberal theories of international trade: Absolute vs. Comparative advantage o early liberals: all producers have an advantage in the production of some thing, so trade makes sense - produce that thing you produce most efficiently and trade for the products produced by others o question is: what if some producers produce all things more efficiently (or nothing), would there be any reason for trade to open up o the classic example: England and Portugal o in this scenario, Portugal has an absolute advantage in the production of both wine and cloth o for economic liberals, is there any reason that trade will open up with England, which by this scenario, has a comparative advantage in the production of neither wine nor cloth? yes, it will Country Wine/per gallon Cloth/per yard Portugal 80 90 England 120 100 o comparative advantage was originally developed in terms of a labour theory of value: these figures represent the number of hours (and therfore cost) of producing either a gallon of wine or a yard of cloth o since Portugal has a comparative advantage in the production of wine, ie. it can produce it even more efficiently than cotton, it will gain more by producing wine and importing cloth from England than it would by producing both o the cost ratio in England is 120/100, so 1 gallon of wine exchanges for 12/10 yards of cloth, or 1 yard of cloth gets 10/12 of a gallon of wine o in Portugal, the cost ratio is 80/90, so 1 gallon of wine exchanges for 8/9 of a yard of cloth, or one yard of cloth exchanges for 9/8 gallons of wine o but if trade opens up, merchants in England discover they can get more wine for English cloth in trade with Portugal than they could in England o why? 1 cloth used to get 10/12 gallon of wine, but in trade, 1 cloth gets 9/8 of a gallon. And likewise, Portugese merchants discover that the 1 gallon of wine that used to exchange for 8/9 of a yard of cloth at home can get 1.2 yards from England o so, by this theory, both gain because they produce the good that they have a comparative advantage in o mind you, English wine makers and Portugese cloth makers will not be pleased (a concern that both critical theorists and mercantilists would want to explore) o because of what they see as the advantages associated with trade, liberals consider free trade to be the best policy o mercantilists, by contrast, emphasize the costs of trade to particular groups and states and favour economic protectionism and state control of international trade The principle that states should specialize and focus in trading goods which are more efficient and cheaper to produce in comparison to other goods pg. 318 Economic liberalism: An approach to IPE (International Political Economy) which emphasizes the gains of trade and the benefits of free trade, free capital flows and an open world economy, also related to mercantilism and neoliberalism pg. 314 International Political Economy: The study of politics and trade and economic relations amongst nations and the connection to transnational forces pg. 3 Mercantilism
 : An economic theory/ political ideology which is opposed to free trade, believes each state should protect own interests without looking for mutual gains through international organizations. Related to Liberalism pg. 77 NATO
 (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): U.S. based military alliance which is composed of mainly western-European members, established in 1949 which opposes Soviet power in Europe. Expanded into Soviet Bloc. Related to Warsaw Pact pg. 245 Warsaw Pact: Soviet-led Eastern European military alliance, founded in 1955 and disabled in 1991 which opposed NATO Trafficking: Lecture 10, transplant tourism film  one of the themes that is emerging these last few weeks is that between globalization and mobility, the movement across borders of goods, services, money, companies, a movement that can be accomplished almost instantaneously  who is mobile, and the impact of that mobility varies  some enjoy the advantages of globalization, the jet setting world travelling life  others face stark economic choices and migrate to gain access to employment  that employment tends to be highly gendered  migration vs trafficking: people may choose to cross borders in search of work, and they may be trafficked, UN estimate 2.5 million people a year are in forced labour  an interesting anti-trafficking activism video here  more recent phenomenon, but one that parallels what we've seen of trafficking in persons, trafficking in body parts  changes in technology and communication, joined with different regulatory practices, permit trafficking/tourism for the purposes of transplant surgery, in particular kidney transplant surgery  a series of 'choices' being made, around access to surgery for the recipients, around access to resources for donor' pg. 178-180, 405 Bretton Woods: Lecture 4, related to IMF and IBRD and GATT  The monetary system created after World War II was known as Bretton Woods  two important institutions created under Bretton Woods: the International Monetary Fund and the IBRD  the Bretton Woods system collapses in 1971  the dollar was allowed to float freely, and as the text notes, its value fell dramatically  when Bretton Woods collapsed, there was an initial panic that we would return to the dramatic fluctuations and uncertainty of the WWI and II and inter-war period  in the short-term, at least, that didn't happen  the IMF still ran the system, the dollar was the major foreign currency for a time and remains today a very important one; no official price for gold or foreign exchange; countries can peg their currencies if they want or can float  more recently, there's been changes: o first, while the US dollar is still important, now other currencies such as the yen and the Euro are increasingly important o second, the growth of the foreign exchange market has been absolutely enormous o third, while the IMF and the World Bank are still important in overseeing the international monetary system, their focus has shifted to developing countries  importance of contemporary monetary arrangements? What's happened to the trade-off between international monetary stability and domestic autonomy? monetary crises? Dollar overhang: SDRs
 (Special Drawing Rights): A new world currency created by IMF (International Monetary Fund) which is used to replace gold as a world standard, called “paper gold” pg. 364 UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights): The core international document on human rights, adopted by UN General Assembly in 1948 pg. 306 OPEC
 (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries): most prominent “cartel” (agreement) within the international economy, members control over half the world‟s oil exports which significantly affect the world‟s price of oil pg. 447 The League of Nations: Lecture 1, brief history of League of Nations:  the UN  history  structure (see the UN organizational chart)  the Security Council  and some current issues: 1. funding 2. the Security Council Veto 3. Security Council reform ... why this P-5? 4. Regionalism 5. Transparencies 6. efficiencies 7. peacekeeping 8. enforcement (regularly raised in discussion of international law) Established before WW1 making it the predecessor of the United Nations, achieved certain humanitarian and other related successes. Failed due to lack of US members and lack of effectiveness in ensuring collective security pg. 37, 54 Collective Security: formation of a coalition of most of the major actors in an international system, formed to oppose aggression by any actor IMF Conditionality: Lecture 7, related to petrodollars  two most important multilateral aid granting institutions are the World Bank and the IMF  IMF - a credit-granting institution  focus of much of the critical view: IMF conditionality, austerity measures, the precondtion for receiving credit from the IMF, but considered by many to entail a 'misdiagnosis' of the situation  period of time LDCs circumvented IMF austerity measures - petrodollar loans IMF (International Monetary Fund): an IGO (Intergovernmental Organization) which coordinates international currency exchange, the balance of international payments and national accounts. With World Bank it is a fundamental pillar of international financial system pg. 363 Harmonization
 : Host country: State in which a foreign MNC (Multinational Corporation) operates pg. 379 Peacekeeping
 : Lecture 2, Where has UN become particularly active post Cold War period? Peacekeeping and humanitarian intervention  peacekeeping: Chapter Six-and-a-half operations: consent of parties, fire weapons only in self-defence  post Cold War peacekeeping missions more wide-ranging in scope and mandate  many of the early post-Cold War missions addressed situations that had been 'unresolvable' during the Cold War - UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia a good example  UNTAC also a good example of the mixed results of peacekeeping: accomplishes the mission mandate but enormously disruptive of Cambodian society Pg. 2, 13, 43, 263-265 Tragedy of the commons: Lecture 11, new social movements  in the last 40 years, a surge of environmental concern  the new consciousness of "Spaceship Earth"  and at the same time, increasing evidence that in fact rapid industrialization throughout the preceding centuries was having an enormous impact on the global environment  humans have always had an impact on the environment, what changes?  how is it global?  tragedy of the commons/collective goods problem  the variety of UN treaties on the environment A collective goods dilemma created when common environmental assets (world‟s fisheries) are depleted through the failure of cooperation of states. Solution: split the asset into individually owned pieces or international regimes pg. 476 Petrodollars
 : 496 VERs
 (Voluntary Export Restraints): GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
 : Lecture 5, the main international institution associated with the post World War II global trade regime was the GATT, precursor to the WTO  GATT was very successful for a time in reducing barriers to trade, but as American power begins to decline in the 1960s and 1970s, as Bretton Woods collapses, concern amongst economic liberals that the liberal trading regime might collapse  were their fears realized? not really, GATT discussions extended GATT principles to services; the GATT itself became formally recognized as the WTO in 1995, and it has arguably been the successes of an increasingly liberalized trading order that has attracted the critiques that we saw erupt in the Battle of Seattle at at other meetings of the WTO since then World organization established in 1979 which works on improving free trade on a multilateral basis (many countries). More of a negotiating framework than an actual administration. Evolved into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 pg. 338, 341 Fair trade: pg. 423 Essay Questions: 1. At the signing of the UN Declaration of Human Rights, a number of states abstained from supporting the Declaration. The reasons for those abstentions reflected a series of concerns that continue to be reflected in human rights discussions to this day. What states abstained from signing the Declaration and what issues did those abstentions raise? How do those issues continue to be raised today? What, in your view, are the prospects for resolving these issues?  Intro: o The Universal Declaration was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favor, 0 against o UDHR is the core international document adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948 and is the most important document concerning human rights o While the UDHR does not have the force of international law, it sets forth hoped for international norms regarding behavior by governments towards their own citizens and foreigners alike o The declaration is rooted in the principle that violations of human rights upset international order, causing outrage and sparking rebellions o The declaration proclaims that “all human beings are born free and equal”, without regard to race, sex, language, religion, political affiliation or the status of their home country o It promotes norms in a variety of areas, from banning torture to guaranteeing religious and political freedom to the right of economic well being  Paragraph 1: o At the signing of the UN declaration of Human rights, 8 states abstained from signing the declaration: the Soviet Union, Ukrainian SSR, Byelorussian SSR, People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, People's Republic of Poland, Union of South Africa, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. o South Africa's opposition ha
More Less

Related notes for POLS 2940

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.