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POLS 2950 Final: POLS 2950 Exam Review

7 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2950

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Question 1. What is modernization according to Lipset? What are the pre-requisites to democracy? • Modernization: democracy is the result of economic growth & that the better a nation, the greater the chances that it will withstand democracy. Economic conditions are determined by cultural & social values present in society. o Economic development that includes industrialization, urbanization, education & wealth. • Democracy: Constitutional opportunities for changing government officials (competitive elections) • Pre-requisites needed for growth of democracy o Effective value system allowing a peaceful political play of power (L.A. countries lack this system) o Effective authority given to 1 party periodically (fair elections) o Effective opposition • Factors that lead to democratization o Economic development  sustains democracy o Effectiveness of state  performance of political system & the extent it satisfies basic functions of government o Legitimacy of state  legitimacy of democratic institutions & sustaining the belief that existing democratic institutions are best for society o Industrialization  Marx Weber capital industrialization equates to modern democracy, correlation between industrialization & rising wealth & employment o Urbanization  more urbanization – higher population o Education  basic requirement of democracy. The better educated the population the more chances for democracy • Democracy isn’t a social system that does or doesn’t exist but a set of complex characteristics • INDUSTRIALIZATION  URBANIZATION  EDUCATION  WEALTH Question 2. Cardoso and Falleto argue that underdevelopment is not a stage that precedes development. On the contrary, both are integral parts of capitalism. Please explain. • Introduction: o Underdevelopment  having a low level of economic productivity & technology sophistication within the contemporary range of possibilities o Development  having a high level of economic productivity & technology sophistication within the contemporary range of possibilities o Not linear o Underdevelopment isn’t a stage that precedes development ▪ A country can be independent & underdeveloped, and some can be dependent & developed ▪ Ex of dependent & developed  Argentina & Brazil ▪ Ex of independent & underdeveloped  China o It might prevent development from occurring o Development is not a direct ramification of underdevelopment o Underdevelopment is a historical, structural problem • Colonialism and capitalism need both underdevelopment & development • There’s no global north without the global south • Critique: both necessary simultaneously for capitalism • Latin America: o Export-oriented: to produce internally to what they were importing before ▪ Critique: ISI  dependent on foreign technology o Neoliberalism/NAFTA ▪ Critique: A tool of the dependency approach to keep global south (periphery/semi-periphery) dependent upon global north; a form of neocolonialism via Washington Consensus and free trade agreements such as NAFTA o New Left Turn as a response ▪ Ruse of leftist waves to fight neoliberalism beginning in 1998 in Venezuela • Pragmatic: Socialism; trying to create friendly capitalism with fiscal discipline • Other: Break with Washington Consensus policies; renationalization without fiscal discipline • Summary: o In order for capitalism to survive, developed countries (i.e. USA) need to exploit underdeveloped countries (i.e. countries in Latin America) o Relationship between the modernization theory and dependency theory: ▪ Global North has reaped more benefits of modernization theory because they are more economically developed ▪ But are more economically developed by marginalizing the global south and making them dependent on them Question 3: How did the embedded autonomy of the Japanese developmental state help the economic modernization of this country? • Author: Evans • Argues state is both a problem and a solution, problem = neoliberalism/neo-utilitarianism • Why does the state become a problem? At what time in history? o 1980s o Theoretical background that argues that markets are natural and operate very well on their own • Structural adjustment can’t be done without the state as the state does the adjusting • The state stays central to the market & markets can’t operate without them because the state has regulating capacity • Japan = successful developmental state; state facilitating capitalist growth • Post WW2 o During Cold war, Japan is necessary for the US because of the safety perimeter o General Douglas MacAthur helps Japan write a constitution o Recreates Japan as a new capitalism state o Japan becomes regional leader o Embedded meritocratic authority state ▪ Economic success of newly industrialized Japan, subsequent effective adjustment to changing international markets = seen as due to active role of state. Traditional to egalitarian-market driven society o Corporate identity: state identifies with corporatism ▪ Corporatism: when the state & market are embedded; partners in developing state ▪ National corporations o State facilities; gives kick-start o Evans: don’t dismantle development state because look how good Japan is doing o Development state is still a capitalistic state o Structural dualism; traditional economy  class struggle  modern democracy Question 4: According to Huntington, what are the different waves of democracy? When did the Global South democratize? • Why is democracy important? o Freedom of the individual o Democracies are most stable over time o Better international relations = free of international violence • Waves of Democracy o First wave (1828-1926) ▪ Roots on the American and French revolution ▪ Democratic institutions weren’t created until the 19 century ▪ 2 minimal democratic qualifications • 50& of adult makes were eligible to vote • Executive chosen who either must maintain majority support or is chosen in a periodic popular elective o First reverse wave (1922-42) ▪ 20s/30s trend; shift from democracy towards authoritarianism or new forms of totalitarianism ▪ Reversal in countries that went democratic just before WW1 o Second wave (1943-1962) ▪ WW2 introduced a short period of democracy o Second reverse wave (1958-1975) ▪ 1960s the second wave of democracy halted ▪ During the 1950s authoritarianism grew, especially in L.A. ▪ During the 60s the majority of countries that became independent were African almost all these countries succumbed to authoritarian rule o Third wave (1974-) ▪ Democratic regimes replaced authoritarian regimes in 30 countries in Europe, Asia & L.A ▪ Democratic movements gained strength internationally ▪ Late 80s democracy overtook communism • When did the Global South democratize? o In 1974, in Portugal a coup d-etat was successfully initiated and democracy began o Death of dictatorship didn’t completely initiate democracy instead it unveiled popular, social & political forces that were oppressed during dictatorship o In the 15 years after this event 30 countries shifted from authoritarian to democratic Question 5: According to Cameron, what are the differences between the left-leaning governments that ruled Latin America in the 2000s? • The election many left-wing leaders has led to distinguishing of 2 distinct types of left – one populist, the other social democratic o Socialist  social democracy; institutionalized party politics o Populist  stays populist; disjointed party politics • Social Democratic leaders o Evo Morales: brought to power through grassroots mobilization. He seeks reparation for socioeconomic & ethnic inequalities. Morales sought to use state power on behalf of a coalition that is both ethnic
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