Study Guides (248,623)
Canada (121,639)
York University (10,209)
POLS 2950 (20)
Bohn (1)
Final

POLS 2950 Final: POLS 2950 Exam Review

7 Pages
24 Views

Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2950
Professor
Bohn

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Description
Question 1. What is modernization according to Lipset? What are the pre-requisites to democracy? • Modernization: democracy is the result of economic growth & that the better a nation, the greater the chances that it will withstand democracy. Economic conditions are determined by cultural & social values present in society. o Economic development that includes industrialization, urbanization, education & wealth. • Democracy: Constitutional opportunities for changing government officials (competitive elections) • Pre-requisites needed for growth of democracy o Effective value system allowing a peaceful political play of power (L.A. countries lack this system) o Effective authority given to 1 party periodically (fair elections) o Effective opposition • Factors that lead to democratization o Economic development  sustains democracy o Effectiveness of state  performance of political system & the extent it satisfies basic functions of government o Legitimacy of state  legitimacy of democratic institutions & sustaining the belief that existing democratic institutions are best for society o Industrialization  Marx Weber capital industrialization equates to modern democracy, correlation between industrialization & rising wealth & employment o Urbanization  more urbanization – higher population o Education  basic requirement of democracy. The better educated the population the more chances for democracy • Democracy isn’t a social system that does or doesn’t exist but a set of complex characteristics • INDUSTRIALIZATION  URBANIZATION  EDUCATION  WEALTH Question 2. Cardoso and Falleto argue that underdevelopment is not a stage that precedes development. On the contrary, both are integral parts of capitalism. Please explain. • Introduction: o Underdevelopment  having a low level of economic productivity & technology sophistication within the contemporary range of possibilities o Development  having a high level of economic productivity & technology sophistication within the contemporary range of possibilities o Not linear o Underdevelopment isn’t a stage that precedes development ▪ A country can be independent & underdeveloped, and some can be dependent & developed ▪ Ex of dependent & developed  Argentina & Brazil ▪ Ex of independent & underdeveloped  China o It might prevent development from occurring o Development is not a direct ramification of underdevelopment o Underdevelopment is a historical, structural problem • Colonialism and capitalism need both underdevelopment & development • There’s no global north without the global south • Critique: both necessary simultaneously for capitalism • Latin America: o Export-oriented: to produce internally to what they were importing before ▪ Critique: ISI  dependent on foreign technology o Neoliberalism/NAFTA ▪ Critique: A tool of the dependency approach to keep global south (periphery/semi-periphery) dependent upon global north; a form of neocolonialism via Washington Consensus and free trade agreements such as NAFTA o New Left Turn as a response ▪ Ruse of leftist waves to fight neoliberalism beginning in 1998 in Venezuela • Pragmatic: Socialism; trying to create friendly capitalism with fiscal discipline • Other: Break with Washington Consensus policies; renationalization without fiscal discipline • Summary: o In order for capitalism to survive, developed countries (i.e. USA) need to exploit underdeveloped countries (i.e. countries in Latin America) o Relationship between the modernization theory and dependency theory: ▪ Global North has reaped more benefits of modernization theory because they are more economically developed ▪ But are more economically developed by marginalizing the global south and making them dependent on them Question 3: How did the embedded autonomy of the Japanese developmental state help the economic modernization of this country? • Author: Evans • Argues state is both a problem and a solution, problem = neoliberalism/neo-utilitarianism • Why does the state become a problem? At what time in history? o 1980s o Theoretical background that argues that markets are natural and operate very well on their own • Structural adjustment can’t be done without the state as the state does the adjusting • The state stays central to the market & markets can’t operate without them because the state has regulating capacity • Japan = successful developmental state; state facilitating capitalist growth • Post WW2 o During Cold war, Japan is necessary for the US because of the safety perimeter o General Douglas MacAthur helps Japan write a constitution o Recreates Japan as a new capitalism state o Japan becomes regional leader o Embedded meritocratic authority state ▪ Economic success of newly industrialized Japan, subsequent effective adjustment to changing international markets = seen as due to active role of state. Traditional to egalitarian-market driven society o Corporate identity: state identifies with corporatism ▪ Corporatism: when the state & market are embedded; partners in developing state ▪ National corporations o State facilities; gives kick-start o Evans: don’t dismantle development state because look how good Japan is doing o Development state is still a capitalistic state o Structural dualism; traditional economy  class struggle  modern democracy Question 4: According to Huntington, what are the different waves of democracy? When did the Global South democratize? • Why is democracy important? o Freedom of the individual o Democracies are most stable over time o Better international relations = free of international violence • Waves of Democracy o First wave (1828-1926) ▪ Roots on the American and French revolution ▪ Democratic institutions weren’t created until the 19 century ▪ 2 minimal democratic qualifications • 50& of adult makes were eligible to vote • Executive chosen who either must maintain majority support or is chosen in a periodic popular elective o First reverse wave (1922-42) ▪ 20s/30s trend; shift from democracy towards authoritarianism or new forms of totalitarianism ▪ Reversal in countries that went democratic just before WW1 o Second wave (1943-1962) ▪ WW2 introduced a short period of democracy o Second reverse wave (1958-1975) ▪ 1960s the second wave of democracy halted ▪ During the 1950s authoritarianism grew, especially in L.A. ▪ During the 60s the majority of countries that became independent were African almost all these countries succumbed to authoritarian rule o Third wave (1974-) ▪ Democratic regimes replaced authoritarian regimes in 30 countries in Europe, Asia & L.A ▪ Democratic movements gained strength internationally ▪ Late 80s democracy overtook communism • When did the Global South democratize? o In 1974, in Portugal a coup d-etat was successfully initiated and democracy began o Death of dictatorship didn’t completely initiate democracy instead it unveiled popular, social & political forces that were oppressed during dictatorship o In the 15 years after this event 30 countries shifted from authoritarian to democratic Question 5: According to Cameron, what are the differences between the left-leaning governments that ruled Latin America in the 2000s? • The election many left-wing leaders has led to distinguishing of 2 distinct types of left – one populist, the other social democratic o Socialist  social democracy; institutionalized party politics o Populist  stays populist; disjointed party politics • Social Democratic leaders o Evo Morales: brought to power through grassroots mobilization. He seeks reparation for socioeconomic & ethnic inequalities. Morales sought to use state power on behalf of a coalition that is both ethnic
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit