Terms for exams
1. Abbasid density- third Muslim caliphate descended from the youngest uncle of the Prophet
Muhammad. It ruled for well over 600 years from the 7 century until the 13 century. Last
powerful Arab dynasty made up of Muslims in 1258 was destroyed by the Mongols after this the
Arab power in the Islamic world seemed to have declined, a return to these good old days seems
to be the idea behind Pan-Arabism.
2. millit system- groups with the same belief system were given certain autonomy under
Ottoman empire. They had a separate legal system pertaining to personal law under which
communities were allowed to rule themselves under their own system.
3. Sykes Picot agreement-also known as the Asia Minor agreement, was a secret agreement
between the French and the British government to divide the middle east into spheres of
influence of Britain and France. If the triple entente was successful in defeating the Ottoman
Empire during world war 1.
4. Balfour agreement- a letter from the foreign secretary national home of United Kingdom to the
Zionist leadership to use its „best endeavor to facilitate the achievement of a for the Jewish
people in Palestine‟(M.Choueri, Yousseif 303) later put into the mandate of Palestine following
World War 2.
5. McMahon Hussein correspondent – series of letter to Arab leaders that if they would revolt
against the Ottoman Empire, the British empire would recognize their independence after World
6. King-crane commission- it is an official investigation that was done by the United States
government concerning the areas that were controlled by the Ottoman empire, it was constantly
hampered by the British and French government.
7. The Young Turk Revolution Of 1908 forced Sultan Abdul Hamid 2 to restore a constitutional
government of 1878 and he was later forced to resign for a sultan more flexible. All Ottoman
province welcomed this move for a more decentralized, protection of minority community and
the rule of law.The Revolution arose from an unlikely union of reform-
minded pluralists, Turkish nationalists, Western-oriented secularists, and indeed anyone who
accorded the Sultan political blame for the harried state of the Empire.
8. Lend-lease policy- was the program from which the united states gave allies materials in
9. Baghdad pact- It was formed in 1955 by Pakistan, Iran, the U.K, Iraq and Turkey. It was
dissolved in 1979. The negotiations led to an agreement because of promises of military and
economic aid. It was an agreement to put a stronger frontier against the Soviet Union spread of
ideology into the Middle East. The originization was dissolved because of the Soviet- Union leapfrogging the frontier and establishing agreements with various middle eastern countries like
10. Muhammad Abduh- . the Egyptian jurist-scholar who later became the grand mufti of Egypt.
He was a staunch modernist and a stronger proponent of reform. Abduh introduced Western
sciences and thought into the curriculum of the influential Al-Azhar University, a move that
angered the traditional ulama. While calling for a return to the fundamentals of Islam, he
emphasised the need for reinterpreting the Koran, warning his followers not to imitate their
forebears in interpreting the holy book, and to use „reason and reflection‟ in its interpretation.
11. Al-afghani- vigorously sought to revitalize Islam and Muslims for the new challenges. This
prolific Iranian Shi‟i scholar and activist, and the founder of pan-Islamism, became the most
influential proponent of Islamic modernism. His modernism was clearly anti-imperialist and his
pan-Islamism based on the idea that the unity of Muslims would increase their power against the
Europeans. He also approved the use of violence to push colonialists out of the Islamic world. He
emphasized the need to reform and reinterpret Islam,
and to adjust it to modern conditions.
12. OPEC-intergovermental organization of 12 producers of oil that control the price of oil It
also pursues ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in international oil
markets with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations.
13. Gush Immumium- was an Israeli messianic and political movement committed to
establishing Jewish settlements in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. It is a
belief that according to the Torah God gave these lands to the Jewish people.
14. Michel Aflaq- Was an educated Damascene French teacher who found the Ba`th party in
1947 along with Salah al-Din al-Baytar. He was a nationalist,socalist and philosopher. His ideas
played a significant role in forming the Ba`athism movement. He was a stronger believer in Arab
unification in order to achieve a state of advanced development.
15. Hizbullah- is a Shi`a Islamic militant group, formed in Lebanon in opposition to the Israeli
invasion of Lebanon, its financially funded from Iran and politically backed from Syria.
Khomeni helped create this party.
16. Mossadeq- a democratically elected parliament votedto nationalise the Anglo-Iranian Oil
Company ( AIOC), and called on Dr Mohammad Mossadeq to form a new government. In 1953 the
Americans,promised a good share of Iranian oil by the British, orchestrated a coup d’e´tat
that toppled Mossadeq’s nationalist government.
17. Ezreum Treaties
18. Thalweg- This definition has been used to divide the Shatt-al-Arab from the lower reaches
water basin between Iran and Iraq. In 1975 an agreement between Iran and Iraq was signed by
using the thalweg definition which is the lowest points along the entire length of a stream valley in its downward slope defining its deepest channel; to divide the two countries. “To date this has
remained one of the most sophisticated river border agreement to date”(Schofield, Richard 30).
Both the countries at times refused to recognize this agreement for example Iran one time
refused to acknowledge this agreement because at the time the treaty was made Iraq was under
British control and Iran was backed by no imperial power so the terms reflected this, this
culminated in the 1980 war between Iran and Iraq.
19. HDI- The is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices to rank
countries into four tiers of human development. It was created by economist Mahbub ul Haq.
20. FDI( foreign direct investment)- is direct investment into production in a country by a
company in another country, either by buying a company in the target country or by expanding
operations of an existing business in that country. Foreign direct investment is done for many
reasons including to take advantage of cheaper wages or for special investment privileges such
as tax exemptions offered by the country as an incentive to gain tariff-free access to the markets
of the country or the region
21. Arab National Movement- is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories
of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and
political union in the Arab world.
22. Gender – related Development index- and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) were
introduced in 1995 in the Human Development Report written by the United Nations
Development Program. The aim of these measurements was to add a gender-sensitive dimension
to the Human Development Index (HDI). The first measurement that they created as a result was
the Gender-related Development Index (GDI). The GDI is defined as a “distribution-sensitive
measure that accounts for the human development impact of existing gender gaps in the three
components of the HDI” .
TERMS WITH LECTURE/TEXTBOOK CITATIONS
Abbasid Dynasty: (750-1258 AC)
Cleveland pg. 16: initially the era was of relative political and stability format he caliphs
such as Al Mansur, Harun al Rashid and Al Mammon.
o Immense economic prosperity
o Abandoned Arab exclusivism ideology
o Capital of Muslim empire moved to Baghdad
o Historical cultural progression
o Lived luxuriously but within their own circles and not extending it to include
others. o They perceived the Solution to the problem was centralizing political authority
under one monarch who would also be spiritual leader of the Muslim Ummah,
this method was initially successful
o However started to fail due to vast territory that was being controlled under one
o Remained crucial till the 10 century
o The empire flourished not alone or centrally but alongside other empires as well
o Their fall thus did not lead to dark ages for Muslim empire as all regions were
technically surviving on their own due to vast majority of land being controlled
by central authority
o The empire though was not fully reflective of the faith of Islam from 1000-1500
o They ushered great economic prosperity
o They became hub of vast trading due to its central location
o Al Mamun had philosophical Greek and other works translated
o Use of secular ideas an Islamic religious doctrine
Pg. 33: invited the Seljuk’s to assume military authority in Baghdad
Pg. 34: Genghis khan’s son sacked Baghdad and killed their caliph in 1258
Yambert pg. 16: Azeri’s gained entrance into Iran during the era of Abbasid era
Their importance to middle east as this was a period of great cultural and religious
development under the various caliphs especially Harun al Rashid.
They developed various academic fields and flourished in this era bringing Islamic
empire to forefront
o Considers it second most historical development of pattern of religions in middle
o Considered people of book in the ottoman empire
o Religious affiliation was of great significance politically and culturally then
o Middle east was the birthplace of major religions of Christianity, Judaism and
Pg. 29: Jews were also a millet and their rights were granted causing sephardic Jew
refuges to settle in ottoman empire
Cleveland pg. 48: o As a result of ottoman conquests sultans ruled millions of Jews and Christians
o Islamic ideology of religious tolerations and pragmatism both played reasons for
granting of the millet system and granting considerable autonomy
o Greek orthodox, Christianity, Judaism and Armenian Christianity
o Their high officials were selected by the sultan himself though and they would
reside in Istanbul to be kept in check
o However the system lacked uniformity region to region
o Gave right such as education, taxation, legal structures to the officials of the
o The officials conducted their affairs within their own communities
This reflected traditional Islamic administrative practices
Giving freedom to individuals to identify with their religion
Shows how the Muslims can live in harmony with other religions as well
This refers to secret meeting held by British and French diplomats in st.petersburg to determine the
division of the Ottoman Empire amongst the three countries once it fell after it would be defeated in
Choueiri pg. 470: after defeat of ottomans in WW1 the agreement of 1916 proposed
division of Kurdish areas between the three states leaving fate of Kurds uncertain
o Palestine, Iraq and Transjordan was to come under British rule
o France would take Syria, Lebanon
o The Iraqi oil would be shared among the two states
o Egypt nationalists were promised independence in return for help to overthrow
the ottoman empire o After war they were ignored and when a delegation was sent to Paris to remind