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POLS 3260 WAR AND PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST: FALL EXAM DEFINITIONS (from lecture notes, textbook, etc).

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Political Science
POLS 3260
Saeed Rahnema

Terms for exams 1. Abbasid density- third Muslim caliphate descended from the youngest uncle of the Prophet th th Muhammad. It ruled for well over 600 years from the 7 century until the 13 century. Last powerful Arab dynasty made up of Muslims in 1258 was destroyed by the Mongols after this the Arab power in the Islamic world seemed to have declined, a return to these good old days seems to be the idea behind Pan-Arabism. 2. millit system- groups with the same belief system were given certain autonomy under Ottoman empire. They had a separate legal system pertaining to personal law under which communities were allowed to rule themselves under their own system. 3. Sykes Picot agreement-also known as the Asia Minor agreement, was a secret agreement between the French and the British government to divide the middle east into spheres of influence of Britain and France. If the triple entente was successful in defeating the Ottoman Empire during world war 1. 4. Balfour agreement- a letter from the foreign secretary national home of United Kingdom to the Zionist leadership to use its „best endeavor to facilitate the achievement of a for the Jewish people in Palestine‟(M.Choueri, Yousseif 303) later put into the mandate of Palestine following World War 2. 5. McMahon Hussein correspondent – series of letter to Arab leaders that if they would revolt against the Ottoman Empire, the British empire would recognize their independence after World War 1. 6. King-crane commission- it is an official investigation that was done by the United States government concerning the areas that were controlled by the Ottoman empire, it was constantly hampered by the British and French government. 7. The Young Turk Revolution Of 1908 forced Sultan Abdul Hamid 2 to restore a constitutional government of 1878 and he was later forced to resign for a sultan more flexible. All Ottoman province welcomed this move for a more decentralized, protection of minority community and the rule of law.The Revolution arose from an unlikely union of reform- minded pluralists, Turkish nationalists, Western-oriented secularists, and indeed anyone who accorded the Sultan political blame for the harried state of the Empire. 8. Lend-lease policy- was the program from which the united states gave allies materials in WW2. 9. Baghdad pact- It was formed in 1955 by Pakistan, Iran, the U.K, Iraq and Turkey. It was dissolved in 1979. The negotiations led to an agreement because of promises of military and economic aid. It was an agreement to put a stronger frontier against the Soviet Union spread of ideology into the Middle East. The originization was dissolved because of the Soviet- Union leapfrogging the frontier and establishing agreements with various middle eastern countries like Egypt. 10. Muhammad Abduh- . the Egyptian jurist-scholar who later became the grand mufti of Egypt. He was a staunch modernist and a stronger proponent of reform. Abduh introduced Western sciences and thought into the curriculum of the influential Al-Azhar University, a move that angered the traditional ulama. While calling for a return to the fundamentals of Islam, he emphasised the need for reinterpreting the Koran, warning his followers not to imitate their forebears in interpreting the holy book, and to use „reason and reflection‟ in its interpretation. 11. Al-afghani- vigorously sought to revitalize Islam and Muslims for the new challenges. This prolific Iranian Shi‟i scholar and activist, and the founder of pan-Islamism, became the most influential proponent of Islamic modernism. His modernism was clearly anti-imperialist and his pan-Islamism based on the idea that the unity of Muslims would increase their power against the Europeans. He also approved the use of violence to push colonialists out of the Islamic world. He emphasized the need to reform and reinterpret Islam, and to adjust it to modern conditions. 12. OPEC-intergovermental organization of 12 producers of oil that control the price of oil It also pursues ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in international oil markets with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations. 13. Gush Immumium- was an Israeli messianic and political movement committed to establishing Jewish settlements in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. It is a belief that according to the Torah God gave these lands to the Jewish people. 14. Michel Aflaq- Was an educated Damascene French teacher who found the Ba`th party in 1947 along with Salah al-Din al-Baytar. He was a nationalist,socalist and philosopher. His ideas played a significant role in forming the Ba`athism movement. He was a stronger believer in Arab unification in order to achieve a state of advanced development. 15. Hizbullah- is a Shi`a Islamic militant group, formed in Lebanon in opposition to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, its financially funded from Iran and politically backed from Syria. Khomeni helped create this party. 16. Mossadeq- a democratically elected parliament votedto nationalise the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company ( AIOC), and called on Dr Mohammad Mossadeq to form a new government. In 1953 the Americans,promised a good share of Iranian oil by the British, orchestrated a coup d’e´tat that toppled Mossadeq’s nationalist government. 17. Ezreum Treaties 18. Thalweg- This definition has been used to divide the Shatt-al-Arab from the lower reaches water basin between Iran and Iraq. In 1975 an agreement between Iran and Iraq was signed by using the thalweg definition which is the lowest points along the entire length of a stream valley in its downward slope defining its deepest channel; to divide the two countries. “To date this has remained one of the most sophisticated river border agreement to date”(Schofield, Richard 30). Both the countries at times refused to recognize this agreement for example Iran one time refused to acknowledge this agreement because at the time the treaty was made Iraq was under British control and Iran was backed by no imperial power so the terms reflected this, this culminated in the 1980 war between Iran and Iraq. 19. HDI- The is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It was created by economist Mahbub ul Haq. 20. FDI( foreign direct investment)- is direct investment into production in a country by a company in another country, either by buying a company in the target country or by expanding operations of an existing business in that country. Foreign direct investment is done for many reasons including to take advantage of cheaper wages or for special investment privileges such as tax exemptions offered by the country as an incentive to gain tariff-free access to the markets of the country or the region 21. Arab National Movement- is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world. 22. Gender – related Development index- and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) were introduced in 1995 in the Human Development Report written by the United Nations Development Program. The aim of these measurements was to add a gender-sensitive dimension to the Human Development Index (HDI). The first measurement that they created as a result was the Gender-related Development Index (GDI). The GDI is defined as a “distribution-sensitive measure that accounts for the human development impact of existing gender gaps in the three components of the HDI” . TERMS WITH LECTURE/TEXTBOOK CITATIONS Abbasid Dynasty: (750-1258 AC)  Cleveland pg. 16: initially the era was of relative political and stability format he caliphs such as Al Mansur, Harun al Rashid and Al Mammon. o Immense economic prosperity o Abandoned Arab exclusivism ideology o Capital of Muslim empire moved to Baghdad o Historical cultural progression  Pg. 17 o Lived luxuriously but within their own circles and not extending it to include others. o They perceived the Solution to the problem was centralizing political authority under one monarch who would also be spiritual leader of the Muslim Ummah, this method was initially successful o However started to fail due to vast territory that was being controlled under one central authority o Remained crucial till the 10 century  Pg. 20: o The empire flourished not alone or centrally but alongside other empires as well o Their fall thus did not lead to dark ages for Muslim empire as all regions were technically surviving on their own due to vast majority of land being controlled by central authority o The empire though was not fully reflective of the faith of Islam from 1000-1500 AC o They ushered great economic prosperity  Pg. 21: o They became hub of vast trading due to its central location  Pg23 o Al Mamun had philosophical Greek and other works translated o Use of secular ideas an Islamic religious doctrine  Pg. 33: invited the Seljuk’s to assume military authority in Baghdad  Pg. 34: Genghis khan’s son sacked Baghdad and killed their caliph in 1258 Yambert pg. 16: Azeri’s gained entrance into Iran during the era of Abbasid era  Their importance to middle east as this was a period of great cultural and religious development under the various caliphs especially Harun al Rashid.  They developed various academic fields and flourished in this era bringing Islamic empire to forefront Millet System:  Yambert 18: o Considers it second most historical development of pattern of religions in middle east o Considered people of book in the ottoman empire o Religious affiliation was of great significance politically and culturally then o Middle east was the birthplace of major religions of Christianity, Judaism and Islam  Pg. 29: Jews were also a millet and their rights were granted causing sephardic Jew refuges to settle in ottoman empire  Cleveland pg. 48: o As a result of ottoman conquests sultans ruled millions of Jews and Christians o Islamic ideology of religious tolerations and pragmatism both played reasons for granting of the millet system and granting considerable autonomy o Greek orthodox, Christianity, Judaism and Armenian Christianity o Their high officials were selected by the sultan himself though and they would reside in Istanbul to be kept in check  Pg. 49: o However the system lacked uniformity region to region o Gave right such as education, taxation, legal structures to the officials of the religious sect o The officials conducted their affairs within their own communities  This reflected traditional Islamic administrative practices  Giving freedom to individuals to identify with their religion  Shows how the Muslims can live in harmony with other religions as well Sykes-Picot Agreement: This refers to secret meeting held by British and French diplomats in st.petersburg to determine the division of the Ottoman Empire amongst the three countries once it fell after it would be defeated in WW1.  Choueiri pg. 470: after defeat of ottomans in WW1 the agreement of 1916 proposed division of Kurdish areas between the three states leaving fate of Kurds uncertain  Pg. 514: o Palestine, Iraq and Transjordan was to come under British rule o France would take Syria, Lebanon o The Iraqi oil would be shared among the two states  Lecture 2: o Egypt nationalists were promised independence in return for help to overthrow the ottoman empire o After war they were ignored and when a delegation was sent to Paris to remind British an
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