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POLS 3260-Final Exam Review.docx

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Political Science
POLS 3260
Saeed Rahnema

POLS 3260-Exam Review Term-Dates In your definitions, it is important that you properly contextualize historically and justify why the particular term is important in the course and in relation to the themes we have discussed. 8 Terms-40% Peel commission - Also known as the Palestine commission in 1936, it was a British commission led inquiry into three years of ethnic tension between Jews and Muslims, in which many died. This period of unrest was started by the Arab allegations that Jews had bought land in Palestine that led to famine, of course these allegations were stated as groundless by an independent investigation. The commission came up with recommendations proposing partition. The Arab leadership rejected this because they had been promised independence but giving rights to Jews was seen as a betrayal. Due to the significant differences between Arab-Muslim’s and Jews (historically, culturally, religiously, etc), there were conflicting views and ideas, thus two states were needed. During this time Jabotinsky, created group that assassinated British and Arab leaders. This is a historically significant commission because it was the first time that partition for the Jews was ever mentioned. It was from this that eventually started the creation of the State of Israel. It is important to the course because this commission also ultimately led to the 1946 Arab-Israel War. Un resolution 181 - UN Resolution 181, aka the UN Partition Plan for Palestine was established in 1947 as a response to the violence and attacks between Arabs ands Jewish Guerillas in Palestine. During that period, Arab Guerillas would attack Jewish settlements, and as retaliation, Jewish Guerillas would defeat the opposition and resettle again. Both parties broke several truces, and thus it led to further Jewish settlement. As a result, UN allocated 15km sq. to Israel, yet they continued to occupy more lands. The resolution had several crucial parts: (1) terminate the British Mandate (Brit would withdraw from Palestine), (2) the new states would be established, soon after the termination of the mandate, in an attempt to address Arab and Jewish nationalism, (3) and the resolution outline the boundaries/borders/laws for the new states. This is important to the theme of Israeli-Palestinian conflict because the resolution was rejected by the Arab states, yet supported by the West. This contrast in views has continued to grow in the form of violence and political discourse. Mainly, conflicts and wars between the Palestine and Israel have continue to this day. Un resolution 242 - Contrary to the UN Resolution 181, the UN Resolution 242 of 1967 endorsed a 2-state land (with Israel withdrawing from occupied land, and the respect/acknowledgement of the freedom of the states in the region to live in peace/free from threats – both PLO and Israel). The demand for Israel to withdraw is historically important because it was the only peace treaty between the Arab states and Israel. This also served as the framework for the Israel-Egypt treaty, which saw the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Sinai Peninsula. UNEF - aka the UN Emergency Force, was established on 1956 as a response to resolve the Suez Crisis in 1956. The UNEF was promoted by Canada in partnership with the UN Assembly to deploy the UNEF on both parties involved in the Suez Crisis. In its first mission, the UNEF, with the consent of Egypt, to help maintain order during the process of withdrawal of Israeli forces. Initially, Israel denied to reinstate the 1949 armistice lines and refused to allow UNEF from entering its territories. Thus, UNEF could only deploy forces on the Egyptian side of Suez. However, Israeli forces still withdrew from the areas captured during the war. In 1973, UNEF was deployed was again but this time to consol the ceasefire between the forces in the Yom Kippur War. UNEF was aimed to maintain a complete ceasefire/cooperation so that no further conflicts/battles would arise. Importance of UNEF: key element in UN efforts to resolve the military crisis between Israeli forces against Egypt. UNEF was the first task force established that had peacekeeping functions as well as large operational abilities. UNRWA  United nations relief work agency was founded in 1950 to over see the welfare of approximately 900,000 Palestinians that had fled as a result of their land taken over by Israel in the 1948 war. The organization was overwhelmed by the relief work it faced. It faces constant budget restraints. They fled to close by arab countries like Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. They are often treated harshly by these governments restricting their ability to work etc. These refugees are not allowed to integrate into normal society which keeps their national identity as Palestinians alive and for a right to return to their lands.  Shas party - founded in 1948, is an ultra-orthodox political party in Israel. Members of the Shas saw the party as a medium to voice their grievances in discrimination/education/employment/housing. Its members were primarily Jews of European ancestry (Portugal, Spain, etc). Notably, Shas has engaged with peace treaties between Israel and Palestine, and has opposed the building of settlements by Israel, and has supported the sovereignty of Palestinians as a people. Peace now - Israeli NGO that promotes the 2-state solution to Israel-Palestine conflict. Objectives: two states, Jerusalem as Israel capital, borders based on 1967, peace between Syria and Israel, and settlements = obstacle to peace, threat to Israel, harms global views. - Infitah meaning opening: 1975, Egypt opened its market to neo-liberal, open door policy, which also related to Nasir’s government and policy. All university grads were guaranteed jobs by the government, however this created a lot of inefficiencies and problems in the financial sector. He advanced the industrial complex and other parts, however, the gap between rich and poor expanded due to this economic liberalization which the country was not used to; poor opposed his policies; middle class shrank; riots; etc. Importance: it was a strategy to break Egypt free from the public sector, and to develop/advance through foreign investment in the private sector. But It is these policies that have shaped the course of Egyptian politics over the last twenty-five years and are often blamed for the state of Egyptian stagnation and instability today. black September  - was a Palestnian terrorist organization that killed 11 Israeli athletes and west germany police officer in the munich Olympics of 1972, the organization is responsible for other terrorist attacks. These events led to counter-terroirst organizations being created in Europe. The group was created in response to the expulsion of thousands of Palestnians from Jordan, it has many cell organization this was code word used by PLO and Fatah for the more extremist personnel in their organization. revolution of rectification - Sadat’s 1971 Rectification Revolution was very different from Nasser’s policies. (1) engage with King of Saudi that saw the removal of Soviet advisers in Egypt, (2) Sadat retrieved the oil rich Sinai from Israelis after the Yom Kippur War, (3) since egypts economy was bad shape, the oil reserves developed the economy and gained popularity from Egyptians. Importance: Retrieving Sinai = Infitah policies Maronites: - are Catholics in Syria. The French presence in Syria was for religious/economic/strategic reasons to prolong the independence of Syrian state by promoting regional differences in Syria (culture, religious, etc). This led to divisions and conflicts in Greater Lebanon by French resistance which saw the deaths on both sides of the parties. France tried hard to create a dissolved state, and it was apparent when the French-Syrian treaty became ineffect. Importance: the division of parts of Syria into Lebanon forced Muslims into the newly created state, causing conflict with different sect. confessionalism: - system of government in Lebanon that mixes religion and politics; distribution of political power equally among various religious communities = peace between various communities and people. cons: groups with more power may oppress others for their favor. Confessionalism remains in Lebanon (seats in govt are different religious groups, even Maronites. There are 64 christians and 64 muslims. Importance. Refer to maronite conflict in 1930s. Mac( Mixed armistice commission):  - Mac(Mixed armistice commission)- the organization that was responsible for the UN administrated brokered ceasefeare at the end of the 1948 war btw the Hashamite kingdom,Egypt,Syria and Syria. OSLO 1
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