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REI 3260 EXAM.docx

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Political Science
POLS 3260
Saeed Rahnema

AP/POLS 3260 – War and Peace in the Middle East EXAM Abbasid Dynasty: Reading: Nationalisms in the Middle East: The Case of Pan-Arabism TheAbbasid Dynasty is the second of the two great Sunnite dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate. It formed well after the Ummayd Dynasty, which became a concern by domestic disagreements. These disagreements or at least part of it, were caused by the policy of Arab exclusivism, adopted by the elite. They equated Islam withArab decent and favoured them, discriminating against the growing number of non-Arab converts to Islam. This disconnect ended in a revolution that conquered the Ummayd house in 750 and brought to power a new dynasty that of theAbbasids. The destruction of theAbbasid Caliphate by the Mongols in 1258 was said to have ushered in the rapid decline of the Arabs either as a military or a political force in the Islamic world. This relates to the th course theme Ethnicity and Nationalism discussed on November 15 , 2012. Sykes-Picot Agreement: Reading: The Ottoman Breakdown During WWI, the British government promised Ottoman-ruledArab lands to countries such as Britain, France and Russia. The interested parties contracted a "secret pact" which they dubbed "The Sykes-PicotAgreement" in May of 1916. TheAgreement ultimately declared French rule in the majority of Northern and Western Syria, as well as a strong influence in the surrounding areas of Syria, including Damascus,Aleppo and Mosul. Britain's goal was to ceaseArab control of lower Iraq; they wanted to be in charge of lower Iraq directly. TheArab government was to be given lands among the Egyptian border and EasternArabia, therefore contributing to Britain's plan of gaining indirect control across the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf. Issue: After WWI, it became clear that the agreement was really just Britain manipulating theArab government in order to gain control. T.E Lawrence was guilt-stricken, as he had encouraged theArabs to trust Britain, believing that after the war their independence would recommence. Arab apologists claim thatAmir Husayn knew nothing about the agreement until after the war. He learned of the agreement from Turkish agents, who were trying to coax him out of the war and away from the British and the French. Husayn directed anArab revolt against the Turks that outweighed the perils of Sykes Picot. Other Arab Nationalists felt that this Anglo-French agreement betrayed their cause.This relates to the course theme of Western Powers and the Middle East discussed on September 20 , th 2012. MacMahon-Hussein Correspondence: Reading: The Ottoman Breakdown The McMahon-Hussein Agreement was formed in October of 1915, and was a promise to the Palestinians from the British that after WWI, the land that been under Turkish control would be given back to theArabs. Sir Henry McMahon and Sherif Hussein of Mecca met in 1915 and McMahon promised many things to theArab people. The British were uncertain regarding these “promises”, and considered them, open to interpretation. Hussein, however, understood these promises to mean that Palestine would be given back to the Palestinians once World War One was over. The British government denied this to be true, even providing a map that had been drawn up around the time the “promises” had been made, showing that Palestine had not been a part of the land that was to be returned to theArabs. This miscommunication caused a large problem between the British and the Arab peoples. Many Palestinians felt that they had been betrayed by the British government. People believed one of two things: The British had promised to repay the Arabs for their support during the war with the return of their land after the war had ended, and/or that the British had enacted the Balfour Declaration of 1917, and that land was not being returned to theArabs but rather Palestine was becoming a homeland for the Jews. Either way, the promise made by McMahon was not fulfilled and became a great contradiction in the eyes of the Palestinian peoples. This relates to the course theme of Western Powers and the Middle East discussed on September 20 , 2012. Balfour Declaration: Reading: The Ottoman Breakdown On November 2 , 1917, the British Cabinet formally announced their decision to develop a Jewish national home in Palestine. The announcement of The Balfour Declaration appeared as a letter from the foreign secretary, Lord Balfour to Lord Rothschild who was the believed president of Britain’s Zionist Federation. The declaration aimed to create a national home amidst the following conditions: the British government would aid the set up of the national home in Palestine for the Jews, the new home would not undermine the rights or the status of Jews who declined to live there, and it would not affect the civil or religious rights of Palestine’s existing non Jewish communities. This relates to Western Powers and the Middle East discussed on th September 20 , 2012 MuhammadAbduh: Reading: Radical Islamism and Failed Developmentalism by Saeed Rahnema Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) was one
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