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Lecture 13 - 6 Point Definition and 2 Dangers of Ideology (no lecture 12, lecture 12 was midterm exam)


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Professor
Martin Breaugh
Study Guide
Midterm

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Lecture 13
New outlook emerged during renaissance
Rising of the merchant class, bourgeoisie, earn a living producing/selling things for profit
o Practical
o New ethic, good and useful
Bring changes to philosophy, philosophers will have to be more aware of human needs and
capacities
Fully flourished during 18th century, enlightenment
o Through reason, human beings can become autonomous, we all have an idea of
how we lead our own lives Informed liberal thought
Inventor of the term ideology, Antoine Destutt de Tracy, suggest replace philosophy with
ideology, because it’s tied to Christian thought
Napoleon attack the ideologist (dreamers, utopians, makers of ideas), ban the teaching of
moral and political sciences
Ideology fall into disrepute
Karl Marx and Engels argued that ideology do exist, if we were to understand society, we
must analyze them
o Critical analyze ideologies in Europe
o Analysis make up the foundations upon which we understand ideology today
o An ideology is an interpretation of the movement of reality given by a particular
social class
o Justify the interest of social class by presenting their particular class of interest as
universal and even necessary for human well being
E.g. conservative ideology, social hierarchy is good and natural because they
ensure the happiness of all, giving a stable structure
Offer a fixed identity, peasants are peasants
Emphasis on social hierarchy corresponds to a particular class interest
Naturalizes something that’s conventional
No ideology without a social force behind, there are incomplete ideologies
6 Point definition of ideology
o An ideology is a global system of thought
When people adhere to ideology, it will induce behaviours (believes, ideas,
values) and attitudes that are specific (32 Freeden)
E.g. socialist refuse subordination, not accept hierarchies like
conservatives
Modes of being in society
System of thought represents interest and inspirations of social force
Made up of principles and theoretical notions that offer a global
interpretation of history, society, and human existence
Take the perspective of a particular point of view but present it being
universal, necessary
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