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Human Memory-Language and Thought-Chapter 7 and 8 bitch psych exam.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010

Human MemoryChapter 7PSSSSSSSSSSSSSYCHSomething that helps define who we are and is intimately tied to our ability to function effectively and efficiently in the immediate moment Time Travel is intimately linked to with the nature of our cognition and memory systems Semanticmemory of general information Episodic memorymemory for personal eventsthis type of memory allows to time travel proposed by Endel Tulving 1972 William RobertsAnimals are stuck in timethey have no episodic memory or ability to anticipate events far in the future There are three key processes involved in MemoryEncodinghow does information get into memoryinvolves forming a memory codeStoragehow is information maintained in memory maintaining encoded information in memory over timeRetrievalhow is information pulled back out of memory recovering information from memory stores EXAMPLE Encoding is analogous to entering data using a computer keyboard Storage is analogous to saving data on a file on your computer Retrieval is analogous to calling up a file and then displaying it on your computer Storage theory is a bit misleading because when information is stored on your computer hard drive it remains unchanged indefinitely and can Retrieve exact copies Our memories however change over time through experience and influence and become rough reconstructions rather than exact copies of past eventsAttentioninvolves focusing awareness on a narrowed range stimuli or eventsSelective attention is critical to everyday functioningOften linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness Cocktail party phenomenonsuggests that attention involves late selection based on the meaning of inputWhen we are attending to complicated highload tasks that consume much of our attentional capacity selection occurs early when involved in simpler low load tasks more attentional capacity is left over to process the meaning of distractions allowing for later selection Lynn Hasher and colleagues suggested that while much of the information we want to remember is encoded as a result of effortful processing some types of information can be obtained automatically Fergus Craik and Robert LockhartUniversity of Torontoproposed that incoming information can be processed at different levels in dealing with verbal information people engage in three progressively different levels of processingStructural Encodinga relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus example if words flashed on screen this type of encoding registers such measures as how they were printed capital letter lower case length etcPhonemic Encodingemphasizes what a work sounds like it involves naming or saying the wordsSemantic Encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input involves thinking about objects and actions the words involved represent This theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longerlasting memory codes Semantic Encodingcan be enhanced through a process called elaborationinvolves linking stimulus to other information at the time of encodingThe additional associations created by elaboration help people to remember information Visual Imagerycreation of visual images to represent wordscan be used to enrich encoding Allan Paivioit is easier to form images of concrete words than abstract concepts example if you saw the word juggler you easily create image of a guy juggling a ball If you saw the word truth it would be a little more difficultHighimagery words are easier to remember than lowimagery wordsimagery provides a second kind of memory codeDualcoding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall Making material personally meaningful can also enrich encoding peoples recall of information tends to be slanted in favour of material that is personally relevent Selfreferentinvolves dividing how or whether information is personally relevant
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