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Notes from text for test 1

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psychology Notes for Test 1 Chapter 1: -psychologists seek to describe, explain, and predict the occurrence of behaviors -term psychology has Greek origin; psyche means soul; logos means the study of a subject -it emerged as a scientific discipline just over a 100 years ago -Wundt made a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than the stepchild of philosophy or physiology -in 1879, Wundt established the first formal lab for research in psychology -according to Wundt, psychologys primary focus was consciousness; the awareness of immediate experiences -structuralism and functionalism were the firs 2 major schools of thought -structuralism was based on notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related -study conscious experiences like sensation, feelings, images -introspection systematic self-observation of ones own consciousness experience (structuralists depend on this to examine contents of consciousness) -functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function of purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure -paved the way for behavioral and applied psychology -behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour -stimulus is any detectable input from the environment -according to Freud: 1 contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior -psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior -humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth -applied psychology is a branch of psych concerned with everyday practical problems -clinical psychology is the branch of psych concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders -Watson and Skinner believed that psych should study only observable behavior -Skinner argued in Beyond Freedom and Dignity that free will is an illusion; we are controlled by our environment not by ourselves -cognitive refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge; involves thinking or conscious experience -cognitive theorists argue that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand behaviour -Donald Hebbs pioneering ideas highlighted the importance of physiological and neuropsychological perspectives -he argued that the locus of behaviour should be sought in the brain -one of the pivotal concepts he introduced was the cell assembly -he suggested that repeated stimulation leads to development of cell assemblies; cell assemblies resemble cognitive units that together or in concert with other cell assemblies facilitate behaviour -he set the stage for contemporary developments in cognition and neuroscience -neuroethics is the concern with ethics in neuroscience research -why has the focus of Western psychology been so narrow? 2
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