PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Classical Conditioning, Contiguity, Drug Tolerance

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Psych Notes for Test 2:
Chapter 6 Learning
-phobias are irrational fears of specific objects or situations and are often a
result from another learning process called classical conditioning
-learning refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge
that is due to experience
-one of the most fundamental concepts in psych
-learning includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills but also shapes
personal habits, personality traits, and personal preferences
-conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an
organism’s environment
-classical conditioning is a type of learning in which stimulus acquires the
capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
-also called Pavlovian conditioning
-conditioning comes from Pavlovs determination to discover the “conditions
that produce this kind of learning
-Pavlov’s Demonstration: Psychic Reflexes:
-Pavlov was a Russian physiologist
-he was studying the role of saliva in the digestive process of dogs when he
stumbled onto the psychic reflexes
-he would present meat powder and collect the resulting saliva
-he noticed that dogs accustomed to the procedure would start salivating
before the meat was presented; for example when they heard the clicking
sound of the machine that was used to present the meat
-he then used a bell noise with the meat and after some time the sound alone
would cause the dogs to salivate
-the tone started out as a neutral stimulus but managed to change by pairing
it with the stimulus (meat) that did produce salivation
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-he demonstrated how learned associations were formed
-unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is a stimulus that evokes an
unconditioned response without previous conditioning
-unconditioned response (UCR) is an unlearned reaction to an
unconditional stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
-example: bond between meat and salivation
-conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that has,
through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
-conditioned response (CR) is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
that occurs because of previous conditioning
-example: link between the tone and salivation
-the conditional and unconditional response often consist of the same
behaviour
-Pavlov’s psychic reflexes came to be called conditional reflexes
-classically conditioned responses have been characterized as reflexes and are
said to be elicited (drawn forth) because most of them are involuntary
-a trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus
or pair of stimuli
-psychologists are interested in how many trials are required to establish a
particular conditioned bond
-classical conditioning affects not only overt behaviours but physiological
processes as well (immune system)
-classical conditioning can lead to immunesuppression a decrease in the
production of antibodies
-studies suggest that classically conditioning can also elicit allergic reactions
and to the growth of drug tolerance
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-it can also influence sexual arousal (example: quails have had a sexual
arousal from a neutral stimulus such as red light, when paired with
opportunities to mate)
-drug tolerance involves a gradual decline in responsiveness to a drug with
repeated use, so larger doses are required to get the effect
-Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning:
-acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning something
-Pavlov theorized that acquisition of a conditioned response depends on a
stimulus contiguity stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and
space
-stimulus contiguity is important but we now know that contiguity alone
doesnt automatically produce conditioning
-extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditional
response
-the consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone, without the
unconditioned stimulus, leads to extinction
-example: Pavlov consistently presented the tone with no food and
eventually it stopped making them salivate
-spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response
after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
-renewal effect: suggests that extinction somehow suppresses a conditioned
response rather than erasing a learned association; in other words, extinction
does not appear to lead to unlearning
-stimulus generalization occur when an organism that has learned a
response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that
are similar to the original stimulus
-example: woman scared of specific bridge from childhood now has a
phobia of all bridges
-basic law: the more similar the new stimuli are to the original CS, the
greater the generalization
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Document Summary

Phobias are irrational fears of specific objects or situations and are often a result from another learning process called classical conditioning. Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience. One of the most fundamental concepts in psych. Learning includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills but also shapes personal habits, personality traits, and personal preferences. Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism"s environment. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Conditioning comes from pavlov"s determination to discover the conditions that produce this kind of learning. He was studying the role of saliva in the digestive process of dogs when he stumbled onto the psychic reflexes . He would present meat powder and collect the resulting saliva.

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