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psych midterm.pdf

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

York SOS: Students Offering Support PSYC 1010 Exam-AID Test 1 Review Package nryc a u . r k u . c a Tutors: 1 York SOS: Students Offering Support Preface This document is intended for PSYC 1010 students who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the course midterm. It has been created with regarG▯WR▯'U▯▯-XELV¶▯)DOO▯:LQWHU▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ sections and is subject to change for future courses. References Weiten, W., & McCann, D. (2010). Psychology: Themes and variations (2nd Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson. Contents Tips for General Midterm Success...................................................................................2 Chapter 1: The Evolution of Society.................................................................................3 Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology.......................................................15 Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment.......................................24 Appendix B: Statistical Methods.....................................................................................37 Tips for General Midterm Success 1. Use acronyms and other mnemonics to remember concepts. For example, use DQ▯DFURQ\P▯OLNH▯³RFHDQ´▯WR▯UHPHPEHU▯WKH▯%LJ▯)LYH▯SHUVRQDOLW\▯WUDLWV▯▯openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. 2. Do practice multiple choice questions. These practice questions will assess your understanding of ZKDW▯\RX¶YH▯OHDUQHG and help you identify areas of weakness. They are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Psychology: Themes and Variations has questions in it and on its online companion website. 3. Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For example, if you know one of the answer choices is incorrect, then an ³DOO▯RI▯WKH▯DERYH´▯DQVZHU found in the same question must also be incorrect. 4. Practice writing short answer questions. If you know ahead of time what the questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of essential points you want to address for each question and practice writing it on paper▯▯,I▯\RX▯GRQ¶W▯NQRw what questions will be on the short answer section, you could try scanning the material to find concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you can make a list of essential points for each and practice writing it. Even if they GRQ¶W▯ show up on the short answer section, doing this helps solidify what you learned. 5. Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future. Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during the test the next day, but your brain has not effectively learned the material. 2 York SOS: Students Offering Support ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Chapter 1: The Evolution of Society ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed Psychology - ³VWXG\▯RI▯WKH▯PLQG´▯▯from Greek: psyche means soul, spirit, or mind, logos means study of a subject) Wilhelm Wundt: German professor who ZDQWHG▯WR▯HVWDEOLVK▯SV\FKRORJ\¶V▯ independence from philosophy and physiology - favoured scientific approach, which matches the intellectual climate of his time - 1879: established the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig - 1881: established first psychological journal - credited as founder of psychology - primary focus was on consciousness: awareness of immediate experience ! psychology became scientific study of consciousness - generated around 54,000 pages of books and articles in career - students from all over came to study with Wundt, and brought what they learned back to their respective places G. Stanley Hall: contributor to rapid growth of psychology in America - studied briefly with Wundt - established first American psychology lab and journal - driving force behind establishment of American Psychological Association (APA) ! first APA president - psychology flourished in the US possibly because American universities were more open to new disciplines, as opposed to traditional European universities Structuralism: SV\FKRORJ\▯VKRXOG▯DQDO\]H▯FRQVFLRXVQHVV¶▯EDVLF▯HOHPHQWV▯DQG▯ investigate the relations of these elements (ex. sensations, feelings, images, perception) - was at ends with functionalism - advocated by Edward Titchener (studied with Wundt) - used introspection: careful self-REVHUYDWLRQ▯RI▯RQH¶V▯FRQVFLRXV▯H[SHULHQFHV▯ (mental processes) ! subjects trained to be objectively aware of their experience ! subjects typically exposed to auditory tones, illusions, visual stimulations - weakness: GHSHQGHQFH▯RQ▯DQ▯LQGLYLGXDO¶V▯UHIOHFWLRQ▯▯QR▯REMHFWLYH▯HYDOXDWLRQ▯ Functionalism: psychology should investigate function/purpose of consciousness - introduced by William James, a brilliant American scholar - chose to pursue psychology rather than medicine - published Principles of Psychology (1890) ! SUREDEO\▯PRVW▯LQIOXHQWLDO▯WH[W▯LQ▯SV\FKRORJ\¶V▯KLVWRU\ 3 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences - James was heavily influenced by Darwin¶V▯concept of natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent JHQHUDWLRQV▯DQG▯WKXV▯FRPH▯WR▯EH▯³VHOHFWHG´▯RYHU▯WLPH - argued structuralists studied static points and not the flow of the stream of consciousness - interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world - James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey began investigating mental testing, development in children, educational practice effectiveness, and behavioural differences in sexes ! this new research attracted women to the field ƒ Margaret Floy Washburn: x first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology x wrote The Animal Mind (1908) which was a precursor to behaviourism ƒ Leta Hollingwoth: x did work in childUHQ¶V▯LQWHOOLJHQFH x debunked theories on female inferiority ƒ Mary Whiton Calkins: x first female president of the APA - most credit functionalism with winning over structuralism - fostered development of behaviourism and applied psychology Behaviourism: scientific psychology should only study observable behaviour (coQVFLRXVQHVV▯FDQ¶W▯EH▯REVHUYHG▯▯ - founded by John B. Watson ! proposed psychologists abandon research in consciousness ! against mental processes research because they DUH▯SULYDWH▯DQG▯FDQ¶W▯EH▯ verified (includes thoughts, wishes, feelings that accompany behaviour) ! psychology should study behaviour: any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism ! argued that nurture (in nature versus nurture debate) is primarily responsible for behaviour ƒ made radical claim that he could take a random infant and turn he/she into any type of specialist) - goal became to relate overt behaviour (responses) to observable events in the environment (stimuli) ! stimulus: detectable input from the environment - behavioural approach also called stimulus-response (S-R) psychology - emergence of behaviourism partly attributed to Ivan Pavlov: showed dogs could be trained to salivate in response to a auditory stimulus (example of a stimulus- response bond) - contributed to rise of animal research 4 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! benefit: experimenter can exert more ³control´ over animals subjects than human subjects Gestalt Psychology - opposed behaviourism - argued that psychology should continue to study consciousness - primarily concerned with perception - [for insight because the book barely touches on it, Gestalt psychology emphasizes the totality of experience; for example, the sum of the parts (choir PHPEHUV▯▯FDQ¶W▯explain for the whole (a beautiful choir melody)] Psychoanalytic Theory: aims to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour - Sigmund Freud postulated existence of the unconscious: contains thoughts, memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness, but exert great influence on behaviour ! examples ƒ slips of the tongue ƒ dreams that reflected feelings unaware by the patient - controversial notions: ! people are not the masters of their mind ! behaviour is greatly influenced by sexual urges (which was taboo for the time) - psychological disturbances caused by personal conflict existing at unconscious level - in time, theory won acceptance in medicine and attracted prominent followers Carl Jung and Alfred Adler - widely viewed as unscientific, thought it would fade away ! but its critics were wrong, it steadily grew to be extremely popular ! continued to raise heated debate ! many of its concepts have filtered into modern mainstream psychology Radical Behaviourism - advocated by B.F Skinner: young Harvard psychologist (became a household name) ! influenced by Watson¶V▯PHWKRGRORJLFDO▯EHKDYLRXULVP▯DQG▯Pavlov¶s work ! EHOLHYHG▯SULYDWH▯PHQWDO▯HYHQWV▯GLGQ¶W▯QHHG▯WR▯EH▯VWXGLHG▯ - argued psychology could understand and predict behaviour without resorting to physiological explanations ! organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to desirable outcomes and not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or undesirable outcomes ! manipulated outcomes in animal testing ƒ ex. pigeon learned to play ping-pong - in Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971), proposed all behaviour governed only by external stimuli ! people are controlled by environment, free will is an illusion 5 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! not well received by the public, seen as an attack on free society - Skinner wrote Walden Two (1948) which talked about his utopian society - behaviourism flourished as the dominant school of thought in psychology in 1950s and 1960s Humanism: emphasizes unique qualities of humans, especially freedom and potential for growth - humans different from animals - grew from opposition to behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory¶V dehumanizing nature of the human condition ! humanists take an optimistic view - Carl Rogers asserted that human behaviour is governed by self-concepts (sense of self), which animals lack - Rogers and Abraham Maslow: to understand human behaviour, must understand their drive for personal growth ! people have basic need to continue to evolve to fulfill potential ! psychological disturbances result from the thwarting of these unique human needs - suffered dissent in recent decades, but some are expecting a renaissance Psychology in Canada - early psychology classes taught through philosophy department - 1838: first psychology course at Dalhousie University - 1891: first experimental laboratory in psychology established at University of Toronto by James Mark Baldwin - 1924: first psychology department at McGill University - 1939: Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) created - increasing number of women in psychology: ! Brenda Milner: ƒ contributions to memory ƒ one of the founders of neuropsychology in Canada ! Mary Salter Ainsworth: ƒ contributed to attachment theory and study of developmental psychology ! Mary Wright: ƒ contributed to educational psychology and developmental training ƒ first female CPA president ! Doreen Kimura: ƒ contributed to the study of the brain, ex. sex differences in cognition ƒ founding president of Society for Academic Freedom and Scholarship Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession - since 1950s began the age of psychology as a profession - applied psychology: concerned with everyday, practical problems 6 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! first applied arm was clinical psychology: branch concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders ! in the beginning, most psychologists were researchers, not clinicians ! WWII prompted need for clinicians to treat soldiers suffering trauma ƒ many liked the clinical work so much they remained as a clinician post-war ƒ 9HWHUDQ¶V▯$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ▯▯9$▯▯ILQDQFHG▯PDQ\▯QHZ▯WUDLQLQJ▯ programs in clinical psychology - rift created between research and professional sectors for funding ! prompted American Psychological Society (APS): advocate of exclusively research ƒ counterpart in Canada is the Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour and Cognitive Science (CSBBCS), established in the early 1990s - expansion of applied psychology into school, industrial and organizational, and counselling psychology - most psychologists today involved in some kind of practice Cognitive and Physiological Perspective - cognition: mental process involved in acquiring knowledge ! conscious experience and thinking - dominance of behaviourism discouraged investigation of mental processes - Jean Piaget (Swiss psychologist) focused on FKLOGUHQ¶V▯FRJQLWLYH▯GHYHORSPHQW - Noam Chomsky brought attention to psychological underpinnings of language - Herbert Simon and colleagues did research on problem solving - must study mental events to understand behaviour ! KDYH▯IRXQG▯VFLHQWLILF▯PHWKRGV▯WR▯GR▯WKLV▯WKDW▯ZHUHQ¶W▯WUDGLWLRQDOO\▯XVHG - some argue cognitive psychology has become dominant perspective in psychology - James Old (Canadian psychologist) showed electrical stimulation of different brain regions can evoke emotional response in animals - Roger Sperry showed right and left halves of brain are specialized for different types of mental tasks - David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel did work on how visual signals are processed in the brain - Donald Hebb published The Organization of Behaviour: A Neuropsychological Theory (1948) which attracted interest of international scholars ! emphasized the locus of behaviour in the brain ! suggested repeated stimulation leads to cell assemblies to develop ƒ cell assemblies resemble cognitive units that together or in concert with other cell assemblies facilitate behaviour ! emphasis on neural network are organized and function - many different psychology fields have shown increased interest in neuroscience - neuroethics: concern for how information concerning our brain and its connection to behaviour is used 7 York SOS: Students Offering Support - biological perspective: human and animal behaviour can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that allow organisms to behave Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity - in the past, assumed that the general principles of behaviour apply to all of humanity - psychology is largely Western (North American and European) ! psychologists are usually white, middle- and upper-class, subjects too - why has the focus been narrow? 1. cross-cultural research is costly, difficult, time-consuming 2. psychologists worry that cultural comparison will foster stereotypes and add further prejudice to cultural groups 3. ethnocentrism: tendency to believH▯RQH¶V▯JURXS▯DV▯VXSHULRU▯WR▯RWKHUV▯DQG▯DV▯ the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways - in recent decades, psychologists have devoted increased attention to culture as a factor in behaviour ! events that prompted change: FLYLO▯ULJKWV▯PRYHPHQW▯▯ZRPHQ¶V▯PRYHPHQW▯▯ gay rights movement, etc. ! reasons: ƒ advancements in communication, travel, international trade has shrunk the world into a global community and increased global interdependence ƒ ethnic make-up up Western world has become more multicultural - psychologists are now: ! learning about how culture is transmitted through socialization and how WKDW▯FRORXUV▯RQH¶V▯YLHZ▯RI▯WKH▯ZRUOG ! learning how people cope with cultural change and finding ways to reduce misunderstandings in intercultural interactions ! enhancing understanding on how cultural groups are affected by prejudice, discrimination and racism ! above all: understand unique experiences of culturally diverse people from the point of view of those people Evolutionary Psychology: examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations - natural selection favours behaviour that enhances DQ▯RUJDQLVP¶V▯UHSURGXFWLYH▯ success ! those genes are successfully passed on to the next generation ! human mind was sculpted by natural selection too - Irwin Silverman and colleagues suggest gender differences originated in human evolution as a result of sex-based division of labour in ancient hunting and gathering societies ! male superiority in mental rotation and navigation developed due to successful hunting 8 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! female superiority in spatial skills developed due to successful gathering of food (memory for locations) - not a completely new perspective since William James and other functionalists were influenced by Darwin - initially was not influential but since the 1980s, evolutionary psychologists have published widely cited studies on a broad range of topics (ex. jealously, personality, etc.) ! ex. David Buss, Martin Daly, Margo Wilson, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby - opposition: ! many evolutionary hypotheses are untestable ! evolutionary explanations are speculative and obvious behavioural phenomena - field is rapidly gaining acceptance The Positive Psychology Movement - Martin Seligman launched positive psychology movement after being criticized as ³WRR▯JUXPS\´▯E\▯KLV▯GDXJKWHU - Seligman argues psychology has neglected the forces that make life worth living - positive psychology: uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence ! 3 areas of interest: ƒ positive subjective experiences (positive emotions): ex. happiness and love ƒ positive individual traits: ex. personal strengths and virtues ƒ positive institutions and communities: how societies can foster civil discourse, strong families, healthy work environments, etc. - criticism: ! dividing human experience into positive and negative domains is an oversimplification ! positive psychology will be a fad (Lazarus) ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified Psychology: science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems - today, academia is the work setting for less than 1/3 of North American psychologists Major Research Areas in Psychology - areas: 1. Developmental psychology (23.4%): human development across a life span, not exclusive to child development 9 York SOS: Students Offering Support 2. Social psychology (21.1%): interpersonal behaviour and role of social forces in determining behaviour 3. Experimental psychology (12.6%): conducting experiments on sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, emotion, etc. 4. Physiological psychology (9.7%): influence of genetics on behaviour and the role of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system and body chemicals in behaviour regulation 5. Cognitive psychology ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯³KLJKHU´▯PHQWDO▯SURFHVVHV▯▯ex. memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, creativity) 6. Personality ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯GHVFULELQJ▯DQG▯XQGHUVWDQGLQJ▯LQGLYLGXDOV¶▯FRQVLVWHQF\▯LQ▯ behaviour, as well as factors that shape behaviour and personality assessment 7. Psychometrics (4.8%): measurement of behaviour and capacities through psychological tests, as well as the development of new techniques for statistical analysis - other fields accounts for 16.5% - specialization is needed because psychology has become too vast - most psychologists receive broad training, later specialization in a certain field Professional Specialties in Psychology 1. Clinical psychology (68.8%): evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders, as well as treatment of less severe behavioural and emotional problems (includes interviewing, psychological testing, psychotherapy in group and individual format) 2. Counselling psychology (14.8%): like clinical, except they specialize with people and their everyday problems (often family, marital or career counselling) 3. Educational and school psychology (8.4%): improve curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training, etc. and help children having difficulties and aid in solving school-related issues 4. Industrial and organizational psychology (5.7%): work in business and industry, ex. running human resources, working to improve morale and job satisfaction and productivity, examining organizational structure, etc. - other fields accounts for 2.3% - some psychologists work on research and application, some academic psychologists practice on a part-time basis - clinical psychologists go to graduate school to earn a doctoral degree - psychiatrists go to medical school and earn an M.D. degree, then they specialize by completing residency training in psychiatry at a hospital - clinical psychologists and psychiatrists differ on their approach to patient treatment - psychiatry: branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of the psychological problems and disorders (clinical psychology takes nonmedical approach) 10 York SOS: Students Offering Support ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Putting It in Perspective: Seven Key Themes Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study 1) Psychology Is Empirical - empiricism: premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation - psychologists must have a healthy dose of skeptical attitude and critical thinking skills 2) Psychology Is Theoretically Diverse - psychologists seek to explain and understand what is observed - theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations ! H[▯▯)UHXG¶V▯XQFRQVFLRXV▯WKHRU\▯UHODWHV▯dreams to slips of the tongue - no single theory can explain everything about behaviour, an event can be seen through several perspectives ! ex. in physics, light considered particle and wave ! all theories can have some validity - contemporary psychologists view theoretical diversity as a strength because differing perspectives often offer a more complete understanding of behaviour than one perspective alone 3) Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context - psychology develops in a social and historical context th ! physics was popular in the late 19 century, therefore psychology was more scientific ! WWII reshaped the landscape of psychology ! in recent years, cultural diversity prompted more attention in cultural differences - psychology has in turn influences society, ex. parenting style, created intelligence tests, etc. 7KHPHV▯5HODWHG▯WR▯3V\FKRORJ\¶V▯6XEMHFW▯0DWWHU 4) Behaviour Is Determined by Multiple Causes - behaviour is exceedingly complex, determined by multiple causes (not one) ! problematic for people who find a single cause - psychologists believe in multifactorial causation of behaviour 5) Behaviour Is Shaped by Cultural Heritage - cultural determinants are prominent factors in behaviour, culture exerts great influence - culture: widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community, transmitted socially across generations ! applies to very tiny groups and nonethnic groups as well - personal heritage not openly observable 11 York SOS: Students Offering Support - culture LQIOXHQFHV▯RQH¶V▯EHKDYLRXU▯▯WKRXJKWV▯▯IHHOLQJV ! ex. someone eating all the food they are served in North America is respectful, but in India this practice is considered rude - culture influences variety of subjects, ex. vulnerability to physical disease, educational success - diversity can also exist within a cultural group 6) Heredity and Environment Jointly Influence Behaviour - historically, nature-versus-nurture debate framed as an all-or-none proposition ! Francis Galton argued exclusively for genetics (nature) ! John Watson argued exclusively for nurture - UHVHDUFK▯KDV▯VKRZQ▯JHQHWLFV▯DQG▯H[SHULHQFH▯MRLQWO\▯LQIOXHQFHV▯RQH¶V▯LQWHOOLJHQFH▯▯ temperament, personality, susceptibility to psychological disorders 7) 3HRSOH¶V▯([SHULHQFH▯RI▯WKH▯:RUOG▯,V▯+LJKO\▯Subjective - people actively process incoming stimulation, selectively focusing and ignoring information ! impose organization stimuli attended to ! perception is personalized and subjective - people can be biased in their experience: ! sometimes people see what they want to see based on motives ! people tend to see what they expect to see ƒ ex. someone described as cold was seen less favourably, whereas someone described as warm was seen more favourably - scientific method designed to counteract subjectivity ! psychologists strive to make objective observations ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Featured Study: Bullying in Canadian Schoolyards Discussion - study used naturalistic observation of bullying episodes in the schoolyard - study found bullies and competent children equally capable of bullying - bullying did not occur in an isolated social setting, peers became involved to some extent - strengths: no constraints of a laboratory (no scientific intervention) - flaw: strapping microphones to the kids may have biased results - bullying is increasing in females and has been expanded to refer to relational and control-oriented bullying which is high among females ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Featured Study: Improving Academic Performance Discussion - good study habits: ! set up a schedule to study 12 York SOS: Students Offering Support ƒ written schedules more effective because they act as reminders and can increase commitment ! find a good place to study where you can concentrate ! reward studying ƒ because the long-term reward of doing well is far away ƒ type of behaviour modification technique - improving reading: ! SQ3R: study system designed to promote effective reading, which includes five steps: survey, question, read, recite and review ƒ survey: look over the topic to understand what you will be reading ƒ question: asking questions gets you involved in what you are reading ƒ read ƒ recite: test to see if you understand the material ƒ review: refresh your memory by going over key points again - getting more out of lectures: ! class attendance associated with class performance ! attentive note-taking associated with enhanced learning and performance ! active listening, reading ahead, writing lecture material in your own words, and asking questions are all good techniques for getting the most out of lectures - testwiseness: ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize one`s score ! research shows changing answers pays off ! ensure you are progressing at a reasonable pace if time is a constraint ! GRQ¶W▯ZDVWH▯WRR▯PXFK▯WLPH▯RQ▯GLIILFXOW▯TXHVWLRQV ! review your test answers if you have time left ! in multiple choice questions, use process of elimination and be attentive to important key words (ex. only, always) ! in essay exams, it is usually a good idea to spend time initially planning and organizing the essay before diving into it ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Critical Thinking Application: Developing Critical Thinking Skills: An Introduction Critical Thinking: use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase probability of a desired outcome - is purposeful, goal-directed thinking that involves solving problems, formulating inferences, working with probabilities and making carefully thought-out decisions - critical thinking skills include application of understanding principles of scientific investigation, formal and informal rules, careful evaluation of information, analysis of arguments - effective cognitive thinking requires both the: ! cognitive component: knowledge of skills ! emotional or affective component: attitude or disposition of a critical thinker 13 York SOS: Students Offering Support - skills are transcontextual: useful in a wide variety of contexts - skills and attitudes need to be deliberately and consciously taught because they DUHQ¶W▯UHDGLO\▯DSSDUHQW▯WR▯D▯SHUVRQ - examples of critical thinking: alternative explanation of phenomena and consideration of contrary evidence 14 York SOS: Students Offering Support ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« The Scientific Approach to Behaviour Goals of the Scientific Enterprise 1. Measurement and description: design a way to measure behaviour and a way to describe it clearly and precisely 2. Understanding and prediction: explain reasons for phenomena, which can be evaluated by a hypothesis: tentative statement about relationship of variables 3. Application and control: try to solve issues through research, and understand behaviour by developing a theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations, which is testable and can generate new hypotheses Steps in Scientific Investigation - scientific investigation is systematic Step 1: Formulate a testable hypothesis - translate a theory or intuitive idea into hypothesis (normally a prediction) - variables must be carefully defined using an operational definition: describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable Step 2: Select the research method and design the study - plan empirical testing method (ex. experiments, case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, etc.) ! balance pros and cons of each and select the most appropriate method - decide on participants or subjects: persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study Step 3: Collect the data - researchers use a variety of data collection techniques: procedures for making empirical observations and measurements - examples of techniques: direct observation, questionnaire, interview, psychological test, physiological recording, examination of archival records Step 4: Analyze the data and draw conclusions - observations converted to numbers (raw data) - statistics used to analyze data Step 5: Report the Findings - write a concise summary of study and its findings - typically findings are placed in a report to be delivered at a scientific meeting and submitted for publication in a journal: periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry - findings are critically evaluated by other experts for flaws, which can lead to results being discarded, which helps in weeding out erroneous findings Advantages of the Scientific Approach 1. Clarity and precision: enhances communication of ideas 15 York SOS: Students Offering Support 2. Relative intolerance to error: scientists try to find accurate and dependable results ! psychologists are trained to be skeptics ! VFUXWLQL]H▯RWKHUV¶▯ZRUN▯FORVHO\▯ZLWK▯FULWLFDO▯H\H▯▯REMHFWLYH▯GDWD▯DQG▯ thorough documentation are important) ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Looking for Causes: Experimental Research Research methods: various approaches to observation, measurement, manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies - 2 basic types: experimental and descriptive/correlational Experiment: research method where investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes any changes in the second variable - independent variable: condition/event that an experimenter changes to see its impact on another variable ! free to be manipulated by experimenter - dependent variable: condition/event that is thought to be affected by indepeQGHQW▯YDULDEOH¶V▯PDQLSXODWLRQ ! XVXDOO\▯SDWLHQW¶V▯EHKDYLRXU▯LQ▯SV\FKRORJ\ - experimental group: subjects receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable - control group: subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group - it is crucial that experimental and control are alike in nature ! ex. David Wolfe¶V▯H[SHULPHQW▯IRXQG▯abused teens improved more in the psychoeducational intervention program (experimental group) than abused teens the Child Protection Services program (control group) - extraneous variable: any variable other than dependent or independent variable that seems likely to influence the dependent variable ! ex. in Dutton and Aron¶V▯H[SHULPHQW▯▯risk-taking behaviour is an extraneous variable because if one group was more risk-taking in general, that would have biased the results of the experiment ! can create confounding of variables: 2 variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects ƒ when an independent variable confounds with an extraneous YDULDEOH▯▯WKH▯UHVHDUFKHU▯FDQ¶W▯WHOO▯ZKLFK▯LV▯KDYLQJ▯WKH▯HIIHFW▯RQ▯WKH▯ dependent variable - to control for confounding, researchers can use random assignment: subjects randomly assigned to a group - H[▯▯LQ▯'XWWRQ▯DQG▯$URQ¶V▯H[SHULPHQW▯▯D▯IROORZ-up study was done to control for personality differences (ex. risk-taking behaviour) where males only crossed a high bridge but were approached by the female confederate immediately after crossing (high arousal) or 10 minutes after crossing (less arousal) 16 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! male participants showed more sexual arousal and were more likely to call back the female confederate Variations in Experiment Design 1. Using one group of subjects for both control and experimental ! participants are exposed to both experimental and control conditions ! no worry of differences between groups 2. Testing for more than 1 independent variable ! can see if 2 variables have an interaction: effect of variable #1 depends on the effect of variable #2 3. Testing for more than 1 dependent variable ! provides a more complete picture of the LQGHSHQGHQW▯YDULDEOH¶V▯HIIHFW Experimental Research - advantages: ! allows cause-and-effect relationships to be found because there is control in experiment - Disadvantages ! limitations in realism, situations are often artificial/contrived ! FDQ¶W▯H[SORUH▯certain topics due to ethical concerns ƒ ex. growing up in rural or urban setting = FDQ¶W▯ethically manipulate this independent variable ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Looking for links: Descriptive/Correlational Research Descriptive/Correlational Research Methods - describes patterns of behaviour, and links/associations between variables - advantage: can go beyond ethical boundaries, thus broadening the scope of phenomena that psychologists can study - disadvantage: lack control, which means cause-and-HIIHFW▯UHODWLRQVKLSV▯FDQ¶W▯EH▯ found, only associations can be established 1. Naturalistic observation: researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the subjects - ex. Levine and Norenzayan studied pace of life of 31 countries ! studied the walking speed, accuracy of public clocks, and postal clerk speed ! fastest in Western Europe and Japan, slowest in Mexico and Indonesia ! fastness associated with colder climate, economic vitality or populations size - advantage: occurs in natural environment - disadvantage: often difficult to make observations without being unobtrusive 2. Case study: in-depth investigation of an individual subject - Finnish team studying suicides 17 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! case studies of suicide victims called psychological autopsies ! 93% suffered a significant psychological disorder (most common were depression and alcohol dependence) - normally involve interviewing, observation, examination of records, psychological tests - case study research looks at collections of case studies to find patterns - good for researching psychological disorders and neuropsychological issues ! ex. Brenda Milner used case studies extensively in her work in neuropsychology ƒ her most well-known case is H.M. famous for his memory loss - advantage: can provide compelling, real-life illustrations to support theory - disadvantage: can be highly subjective 3. Surveys: questionnaires and interviews used to gather information about specific DVSHFWV▯RI▯SDUWLFLSDQWV¶▯EHKDYLRXU - used for a variety of purposes ! ex. political polls, opinions on social issues, mental disorder prevalence, etc. - advantage: can obtain information on aspects of behaviour that are difficult to observe - disadvantages: ! possible distortion of results caused by wishful thinking, memory lapse, poorly worded questions, etc. ! possible sampling bias = sample is not representative of the interested population ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Looking for Conclusions: Statistics and Research Statistics: use of math to organize, summarize and interpret numerical data - allow researchers to draw conclusions based on their observations Descriptive Statistics: used to organize and summarize data (overview) - central tendency: averages or typical scores ! median: score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores ! mean: arithmetic average of a distribution of scores ƒ most useful because additional statistical manipulations can be performed on it ƒ disadvantage: sensitive to extreme scores ! mode: most frequent score in a distribution - variability: how much the scores in data set vary from each other and from the mean ! standard deviation: index amount of variability in a set of data ƒ greater variability = greater standard deviation (and vice versa) - correlation: two variables are related to each other 18 York SOS: Students Offering Support ! correlation coefficient: numerical index of the degree of relationship between 2 variables ƒ indicates direction of relationship (positive/negative) and the strength of the relationship ƒ a positive correlation means variables co-vary in the same direction ƒ a negative correlation means variables co-vary in the opposite direction ƒ size of the coefficient indicates the strength of correlation x can vary between ±1.00 to +1.00 x 0 = no relationship, 1.00 = perfect relationship x note: -.65 is a stronger relationship than +.45 ƒ as a correlation increases in size, ability to predict grows x but remember FRUUHODWLRQ▯GRHVQ¶W▯WHOO▯XV▯LI▯FDXse and effect exists x it is possible a third variable (Z) may cause X and Y Inferential Statistics: used to interpret data and draw conclusions - used to evaluate the possibility of results being due to fluctuations of chance - to prove a hypothesis we need statistical significance: exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low (fewer than 5 chances in 100, which is called the 0.05 level of significance) - significant does not mean important or practical, it just means something is unlikely due to chance - comparing the results of many studies is called a meta-analysis: results of several studies are integrated to allow for conclusions regarding the set of observed results ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research Evaluating Studies - scientists are fallible human beings who do not conduct flawless research - scientists can commit personal biases in research which distort research findings - very important to see if studies have replication: repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated (helps identify and purge errors) 1. Sampling Bias: sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn from - sample: collection of subjects for observation in an empirical study - population: the larger collection of animals or people where sample is drawn from - in the past, ethnic groups, women, non-Westerners not represented well in research studies 19 York SOS: Students Offering Support 2. Placebo Effect: SDUWLFLSDQWV¶▯H[SHFWDWLRQV▯OHDG▯WKHP▯WR▯H[SHULHQFH▯VRPH▯FKDQJH▯ even though they receive empty, fake or ineffectual treatment - placebo: substance that resembles a drug, but has no pharmacological effect - SDUWLFLSDQWV¶▯H[SHFWDWLRQV▯DUH▯SRZHUIXO▯GHWHUPLQDQWV, some people improve from their expectations (but were in fact given placebos) - placebos should be given to the control group to see if WKH▯H[SHULPHQWDO▯JURXS¶V▯ UHVXOWV▯DUH▯VLJQLILFDQWO\▯GLIIHUHQW▯IURP▯WKH▯FRQWURO▯JURXS¶V▯UHVXOWV - studies found meditation can improve energy, mental and physical health, happiness, but it was also noted that a lot the subjects expected and wanted PHGLWDWLRQ¶V beneficial results 3. Distortions in Self-Report Data - psychologists often work with a VXEMHFW¶V▯YHUEDO▯DFFRXQW, but it can be distorted - subjects can express the social desirability bias: tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself ! ex. someone saying they donated to charity when WKH\▯GLGQ¶W ! can be problematic in prejudice and stereotype research ! new tests developed by Bertram Gawronski rely on implicit measures ZKLFK▯DUHQ¶W▯LQIOXHQFHG▯E\▯WKH▯VRFLDO▯GHVLUDELOLW\▯ELDV - miscommunication can also distort data ! ex. respondents misunderstand question ! ex. TXHVWLRQV¶▯ZRUGLQJ▯can shape answers - people can also have a response set: tendency to respond to questions in a particular way unrelated to the content of the questions ! ex. person agrees or disagrees with everything 4. Experimenter Bias: UHVHDUFKHU¶V▯H[SHFWDWLRQV▯RU▯SUHIHUHQFHV▯DERXW▯WKH▯RXWFRPH▯RI▯ a study influence results (ex. seeing what they want to see) - researchers can be emotionally-invested in their work and can begin to see what they want to see - subtle nonverbal signals can constitute this kind of bias, ex. the experimenter nodding or smiling when a participant gives desirable responses - solution: double-blind procedure: H[SHULPHQWHU▯RU▯VXEMHFW▯GRHVQ¶W▯NQRZ▯ZKLFK▯ subjects are from the control or experimental group ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Looking into the Future: The Internet and Psychological Research Internet-mediated research: studies in which data collection is done using the Web - various studies are being conducted online - in addition, social interaction in online communities can be studied by researchers using naturalistic observation - advantages: ! larger and more diverse samples can be polled online ! data can be effortlessly obtained 24 hours a week and 7 days a week, as opposed to having research assistants run studies 20 York SOS: Students Offering Support - disadvantages: ! potential for sampling bias ƒ not everyone has access to the Internet ! Web studies tend to have lower participation and higher dropout rates than conventional studies ! studies have less control than traditional studies ƒ H[▯▯FDQ¶W▯FRQWURO▯WKH▯SK\VLFDO▯FRQGLWLRQV▯▯H[▯▯URRP▯WHPSHUDWXUH▯▯ lighting) in which participant is participating in the survey - despite the disadvantages, it is likely to grow because of its potential to yield more diverse and representative samples than traditional approaches ! control issues have been found to be minimal, ! increased anonymity of participating online can also reduce social desirability bias ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the Means? Ethical Concerns - generally concerned with the usage of deception and the participation of humans and animals in research - some studies can be dangerous ! ex. Tuskgee Syphilis Study: a group of black men in a study not informed that they had the disease - major criticism: ! deception is a euphemism for lying, which is still immoral ! SV\FKRORJLVWV▯PD\▯XQGHUPLQH▯PDQ\▯LQGLYLGXDOV¶▯WUXVW▯LQ▯RWKHUV ! many deceptive studies produce distress in participants who were not forewarned - psychologists are serious about client and participant protection - ethical principles outlined by the CPA: ! respect for the dignity of persons ! responsible caring ƒ PXVW▯SURWHFW▯WKH▯SHUVRQ¶V▯ULJKWV▯▯SULYDF\▯▯SHUVRQDO▯OLEHUW\▯DQG▯VHOI- determination ƒ take the necessary precautions to protect vulnerable populations (ex. children ! integrity in relationships ! responsibility to society ƒ research must increase knowledge and promote welfare of all human beings ! for animals, discomfort must be minimized and the results must demonstrate benefits to both humans and animals - ethics boards or committees at universities must approve of research ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Featured Study: Can Fear Increase Sexual Attraction? 21 York SOS: Students Offering Support Discussion - Dutton and Aron¶V▯H[SHULPHQW tested if unambiguous fear or anxiety can be relabelled as sexual attraction - all participants were male - participants who crossed the high bridge (high anxiety) showed more sexual arousal in their TAT stories and were more likely to call their female confederate back (who met them after crossing the bridge) than those who crossed the low bridge (low anxiety) ! Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): projective test where a subject creates a story for an uncaptioned picture - study used a naturalistic experimental procedure with subjects who were not recruited from undergraduate psychology courses ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Personal Application: Finding and Reading Journal Articles Technical Journals - journal: periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material in narrowly defined area of inquiry ! often difficult to read because they are written by professionals, intended for the professional community Finding Journal Articles - newspapers and magazines can mention research at times, but usually only ones with sensationalist conclusions and after oversimplifying and committing factual errors - PsycINFO: computerized psychology database that allows one to locate journal articles by specific researchers or by specific topics ! contains abstracts: a concise summary RI▯D▯VWXG\¶V▯K\SRWKHVHV▯▯ methods, results and conclusions Reading Journal Articles - abstract: concise summary at the beginning of each article - introduction: overview of the problem studied and provides a review of related literature ! XVXDOO\▯SURJUHVVHV▯WR▯D▯SUHFLVH▯VWDWHPHQW▯RI▯WKH▯VWXG\¶V▯K\SRWKHVLV - method: thorough description of research methods, including the participants and data collection techniques - results: reports the data obtained from the study - discussion: conclusions drawn by the author(s) and the implications and limitations of the findings - references: rich sources of works cited in the article ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 22 York SOS: Students Offering Support Critical Thinking Application: The Perils of Anecdotal EviGHQFH▯▯³,▯+DYH▯D▯)ULHQG▯ :KR«´ Anecdotal evidence: personal stories about specific incidents or experiences - can be very attractive because they are concrete, vivid and memorable - shortcomings: ! OLNH▯FDVH▯VWXGLHV▯▯UHOLDEOH▯FRQFOXVLRQV▯FDQ¶W▯EH▯GUDZQ▯▯WKH\▯DUH not systematic) ! like self-report data, they are susceptible to distortion ƒ ex. social desirability bias ! often inaccurate and riddled with embellishments ƒ anecdotal evidence often consists of stories that people have heard DERXW▯RWKHUV¶▯H[SHULHQFHV - when anecdotal evidence is suspect, use evidence-based decision making: making decisions using solid evidence and critical thinking skills ! ! ! ! ! ! 23 York SOS: Students Offering Support ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Nature of Personality Personality▯▯LQGLYLGXDO¶V▯XQLTXH▯FRQVWHOODWLRQ▯RI▯FRQVLVWHQW▯EHKDYLRXUDO▯WUDLWV ! distinctive from others, and consistent across situations ! personality trait: durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations ! some traits are more basic than others
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