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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 Exam-AID Review Package 2 Bryan Choi | [email protected] Alexandra Olteanu | [email protected] Preface This document was created by the York University chapter of Students Offering Support (York SOS) to accompany our PSYC 1010 Exam-AID session. It is intended for students enrolled in any section of Dr. Jubis‟ 2010/2011 PSYC 1010 course who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the exam. References Weiten, W., & McCann, D. (2010). Psychology: Themes and variations (2nd Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson. Contents Tips for General Midterm Success | page 3 Chapter 6: Learning | page 4 Chapter 16: Social Behaviour | page 14 Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness | page 25 Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behaviour | page 43 What is Students Offering Support? Students Offering Support is a national network of student volunteers working together to raise funds to raise the quality of education and life for those in developing nations through raising marks of our fellow University students. This is accomplished through our Exam-AID initiative where student volunteers run group review sessions prior to a midterm or final exam for a $20 donation. All of the money raised through SOS Exam-AIDs is funnelled directly into sustainable educational projects in developing nations. Not only does SOS fund these projects, but SOS volunteers help build the projects on annual volunteer trips coordinated by each University chapter. York SOS | 2 Tips for General Midterm Success Use mnemonics to remember concepts better. An example of a mnemonic would be acronyms. For instance, knowing the word “ocean” can help you remember the Big Five personality traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Do practice multiple choice questions. Doing these practice questions can assess your understanding of what you‟ve learned and can help you identify areas of weakness. Practice multiple choice questions are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Psychology: Themes and Variations has practice questions in it and on its online companion website ( Read a multiple choice question and try to answer it BEFORE looking at the possible answers. Having an answer in mind before looking at possible answers can reduce the chances of being fooled by wrong answers. Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For example, if you know that answer A is wrong, then logically an answer “A and B are correct” in the same question must also be incorrect. When you don‟t know the answer, eliminating wrong answers (as opposed to just random guessing) can increase your chances of getting the question right. Practice writing answers to short answer questions. If you know ahead of time what the questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. If you don‟t know what questions will be on the short answer section, you could try scanning the material to identify concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you can make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. Even if the question you thought of doesn‟t show up on the short answer section, doing this can help solidify what you learned. Don’t spend too much time on a difficult question. It is better to move onto easier questions to ensure getting those marks than to get hung up on a difficult question, especially when time is limited. Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future. Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during the test the next day, but your brain has not effectively learned the material. York SOS | 3 Chapter 6: Learning Learning: relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience - superstitions involves people repeating behaviour that they think will lead to a certain outcome (this is a type of operant conditioning) - phobias: irrational fears of specific objects or situations o often the result of classical conditioning - conditioning: learning associations between events that occur in an organism‟s environment o a specific kind of learning Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning: type of learning whereby after several pairings of a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus (which produces an unconditioned response), the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus and gains the capacity to produce a conditioned response (which is similar to the unconditioned response) - learning by association - also called Pavlovian conditioning (pioneered by Ivan Pavlov) - the term “conditioning” comes from Pavlov‟s determination to discover the “conditions” of this kind of learning - neutral stimulus (NS): a stimulus that does not evoke a conditioned response - unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning - unconditioned response (UCR): an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning) - conditioned stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus (NS) that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response - conditioned response (CR): a learned reaction to conditioned stimulus because of previous conditioning - ex. in dogs: o meat powder (UCS) → salivation (UCR)  this is an automatic, unlearned response o a tone (NS) + meat powder (UCS) → salivation (UCR)  a neutral stimulus is paired with presentations of meat powder o a tone (CS) → salivation (CS)  the neutral stimulus becomes associated with the response of the meat powder, becoming the conditioned stimulus  when the tone is presented alone, it can produce the salivation response - UCR and CR are usually the same, but there could be subtle differences - classically conditioned responses are known as conditioned reflexes (formerly “psychic reflexes”) o they are elicited (drawn forth) York SOS | 4 - trial: consists of presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimulus o classical conditioning usually requires several trials, but sometimes needs only 1 trial Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life - phobias: conditioned fears o case studies of patients suffering from phobias suggest many irrational fears can be traced to experiences involving classical conditioning o fear (UCR) is associated with UCS and NS, new CS causes CR of fear - classical conditioning works for pleasant emotions as well o advertising: attractive people in pleasant environment associated with products o e.g. attractive people and situation (UCS) elicit pleasant emotions (UCR) and products (CS) elicits pleasant emotions (CR) Conditioning and Physiological Responses - Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen showed classical conditioning can lead to immunosuppression: decrease in production of antibodies o animal given chemical immunosuppression (UCS) with unusual-tasting liquid (NS), animal showed lowered immune response after taking liquid alone, liquid became CS - studies show classical condition can elicit allergic reactions - classical conditioning contributes to increased drug tolerance o contextual cues or predrug cues (e.g. park, swings = where a person used a drug) become conditioned stimuli that elicit conditioned compensatory responses (body processes that oppose drug effects) o therefore: if the situation elicits compensatory CRs that weaken drug effects, users will use more drugs to get the same effect (causing compensatory CR to grow in strength over time as well) o if users take drugs in a new context or situation, then this new environment won‟t elicit compensatory CRs and the person doesn‟t need to take as much drugs to get the same effect - withdrawal symptoms present when cues present but not administering drug - classical conditioning involved in sexual arousal and fetishes o in quails, red light paired (NS) with opportunities to copulate (UCS), red light became a conditioned response and elicited increased sperm release (CS) Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning - acquisition: initial stage of learning something o Pavlov theorized stimulus contiguity: stimuli are contiguous when they occur together in time and space o occurs when CS and UCS are paired, gradually resulting in a CR o evidence shows that stimuli which are unusual or intense have more potential to become CSs in conditioning  probably because these types of stimuli stand out more York SOS | 5 - extinction: gradual weakening or disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o occurs after repeated presentation of CS alone without UCS  e.g. continuous tone with salivating dogs and no meat powder → dogs‟ salivation declines o does not lead to unlearning, rather suppression - spontaneous recovery: reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to CS o e.g. dogs‟ salivation to the tone extinguished → later exposure to tone created a little salivation in the dog - renewal effect: CR returns when reintroduced to original environment where it was acquired first (response was extinguished in a different environment) - stimulus generalization: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that is similar to the original stimulus o CR elicited by new stimulus resembles original CS o adaptive measure because we rarely experience the same stimulus twice o generalization declines as similarity decreases  generalization gradients quantify the degree of generalization across similar objects - stimulus discrimination: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o opposite of generalization (CR is not elicited by new stimulus that resembles original CS) o new stimuli are unpaired with original stimuli o adaptive measure, e.g. avoiding poisonous foods, recognizing friend from foe o less similar a stimuli is to the original the greater likelihood of discrimination - higher-order conditioning: conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus o natural UCS can be substituted with CS after response established in the CS o CS is paired with NS over trials, NS becomes a second CS Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning: form of learning where responses come to be controlled by their consequences - developed by B.F. Skinner - mainly regulates voluntary, spontaneous responses (e.g. studying) Thorndike’s Law of Effect - operant conditioning a.k.a. instrumental learning York SOS | 6 - law of effect: response in presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between stimulus and response is strengthened o e.g. experiment where cats were rewarded upon escape, the cats were escaping faster and faster B.F. Skinner’s Demonstration: It’s All a Matter of Consequences - reinforcement: occurs when an event following a response increases an organism‟s tendency to make that response - operant chamber or Skinner box: small enclosure where an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while consequences of the response are systematically controlled - operant responses tend to be emitted (sent forth, voluntary) o unlike elicited (drawn forth, involuntary) - reinforcement contingencies: circumstances or rules that determine whether the responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers - cumulative recorder: creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time (dependent variable = rate of response) o steep slope = rapid response rate o shallow slope = slow response rate o line never goes down because it is cumulative Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning - same stages as classical conditioning - acquisition: initial stage of learning some new pattern of responding o responding gradually increases because of reinforcement (possibly through shaping) - shaping: consist of reinforcements of closer and closer approximations of a desired response o e.g. rewarding a child each time s/he gets closer and closer to tying their shoe correctly - extinction: responding gradually slows and stops after reinforcement is terminated o organism will eventually cease to perform behaviour - resistance to extinction: occurs when an organism continues to make a response after reinforcement termination o high resistance if response tapers off slowly o low resistance if response tapers off quickly - discriminative stimuli: cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response o e.g. birds learn to hunt after it has rained because worms are easier to find - stimulus generalization: responding increases (generalization) in the presence of a stimulus that resembles discriminative stimulus - stimulus discrimination: responding decreases (discrimination) in the presence of a stimulus that does not resemble discriminative stimulus Reinforcement: Consequences That Strengthen Responses York SOS | 7 - strengthening of a response tendency after a favourable outcome o defined after effect, in other words after observation - primary reinforcers: events that inherently reinforce because they satisfy biological needs o e.g. food, water, warmth, sex, etc. - secondary or conditioned reinforcers: events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers o e.g. money, good grades, attention, flattery, praise, etc. Schedules of Reinforcement - schedule of reinforcement: determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer o basically “how often is behaviour reinforced” - continuous reinforcement: occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced o fast extinction if reinforcement ceased - intermittent or partial reinforcement: occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time o longer-lasting effects - ratio schedules require organism to make designated response a certain number of times to fain each reinforcer o fixed-ratio (FR) schedule: reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non- reinforced responses  e.g. salesman receives bonus every 4 encyclopedias sold o variable-ratio (VR) schedule: reinforcer is given after a variable number of non-reinforced responses (varies around predetermined average)  e.g. slot machine pays off once every 6 tries on the average, number of non-winnings varies one time to the next - interval schedules require time period to pass between presentation of reinforcers o fixed-interval (FI) schedule: reinforcer given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed  e.g. man washing clothes periodically checks to see whether each load is finished  reward (clean clothes) available only after fixed intervals (checking responses is not reinforced) o variable-interval (VI) schedule: reinforcer given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed  e.g. person repeatedly dialing a busy phone number (getting through is reinforcer) - ratio schedules produce more rapid responding because it leads to reinforcement sooner Positive Reinforcement versus Negative Reinforcement - positive reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by presentation of a rewarding stimulus York SOS | 8 o e.g. studying hard (response) earns good grades (rewarding stimulus) - negative reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus o e.g. giving in (response) to a demanding child (unpleasant stimulus) o leads to escape learning: organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation  e.g. leaving a party when being picked on (ending unpleasantness)  e.g. turning on AC to get rid of stifling heat (decreasing unpleasantness) o leads to avoidance learning: organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring  e.g. quitting parties to avoid being picked on  e.g. turning on AC before entering a hot room o operant conditioning can work with classical conditioning  e.g. phobia: presentation of stimulus (CS) followed by avoidance behaviour (CR) is reinforced (operant response) Punishment: consequences that weaken responses - positive punishment: presentation of an aversive stimulus to reduce occurrence of response o e.g. spanking (aversive stimulus) a child o used a lot for disciplinary purposes - negative punishment: removal of a rewarding stimulus o e.g. parent taking away child‟s TV time (rewarding stimulus) for misbehaving - side effects of physical punishment: o Elizabeth Thompson Gershoff concluded physical punishment is associated with: poor-quality parent-child relations, elevated aggression, delinquency, behavioural problems in youngsters, increased likelihood of children being abused o studies show effects carry over into adulthood for those who were abused in childhood: increased aggression, criminal behaviour, mental health problems, child abuse o rebuttal: these relations are correlations and that levels of punishment was unaccounted for Effective Punishment 1) Apply punishment swiftly: punish after immediately after unfavourable response or the effectiveness of it is loss - delayed punishment can make ex. a child confused at why they were punished 2) Use punishment just severe enough to be effective - more severe punishment can have undesirable effects 3) Make punishment consistent: punish the response very time, or else confusion is created in learning 4) Explain the punishment: punishment combined with reasoning is more effective than either alone York SOS | 9 - [makes ex. a child realize clearly which stimulus (bad behaviour) their parents disapprove of] 5) Use noncorporal punishments (e.g. withdrawal of privileges) - withdrawing allows e.g. a child to contemplate the wisdom of changing their ways Changing Directions in the Study of Conditioning Instinctive drift: occurs when an animal‟s innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning - e.g. raccoons can be conditioned to deposit 1 coin in a piggy bank, but couldn‟t be conditioned to deposit 2 or more coins (they would rub the coins together and keep them) o raccoons have an instinct to rub things together to clean them Conditioned Taste Aversion: many people develop aversions to food followed by nausea, food poisoning and alcohol intoxication - e.g. “sauce béarnaise syndrome”: CS (sauce) + UCS (flu) elicit nausea (UCR + CR) o taste-nausea and odour-nausea associations form quickly despite CS- UCS delays o study: rats developed taste aversion when given radiation that causes nausea after eating, but not to electric shock  visual and auditory stimuli before induced-nausea did not create conditioned aversions o reason: natural selection favours those able to choose right foods to eat (evolutionary influences) Preparedness and Phobias - preparedness: species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others - evolutionary forces gradually programmed humans to easily acquire conditioned fears to common objects more easily and rapidly (e.g. dark, spiders, etc.) Arbitrary Versus Ecological Conditioned Stimuli - Domjan argues that in the real world, conditioned stimuli tend to have natural relationships to the unconditioned stimuli Evolutionary Perspectives on Learning - popular view: basic mechanisms of learning are similar across species but sometimes are modified due to different environmental demands on species - radical view: there isn‟t the learning process, rather there are many learning processes sculpted by evolution for each particular species o no universal laws to learning Recognizing Cognitive Processes in Conditioning York SOS | 10 Signal Relations - Robert Rescorla asserts environmental stimuli serve as signals and that some are better than others o a “good” signal is a CS that allows accurate prediction of UCS o more UCS-CS pairings, the stronger the CR Response-Outcome Relations and Reinforcement - people actively reason out relations between responses and outcomes - response is more likely to be strengthened if it appeared to have caused the favourable outcome - modern theory: conditioning is a matter of detecting contingencies (what causes what) o looks at contingencies of behaviour and the environment o stimuli are signals that help organism minimize unpleasant experiences and maximize pleasant experiences o departure from mechanical and mindless process of classical conditioning of old theory Observational Learning Observational Learning: occurs when an organism‟s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models (indirect experience) - Albert Bandura‟s research in observational learning has been pivotal o demonstrated that classical and operant conditioning can take place vicariously through observational learning Basic Processes 1) Attention: paying attention to another person‟s behaviour and its consequences 2) Retention: storage of a mental representation of what you have witnessed in memory 3) Reproduction: enacting a modelled response (depends on ability to convert memory to overt behaviour) 4) Motivation: encountering a situation where you believe the response will pay off Acquisition versus Performance - distinguishes acquisition of a learned response and performance of that response - reinforcement affects which responses are actually performed more than which responses are acquired - Bandura asserts reinforcement influences performance rather learning Observational Learning the Media Violence Controversy - media violence and aggression connection still debated - Bandura performed experiments using the “Bobo doll” York SOS | 11 o children acted aggressively with the doll after seeing an adult model doing the same o supports idea of media violence and aggressiveness - many studies support the finding that violence in media has short-term effects, ex. verbal aggression - others argue that violence in the media is only one of many factors that determine a person‟s level of aggression - physical punishment tends to increase aggression in children even when it is intended to do the opposite Observational Learning and the Brain: Mirror Neurons - mirror neurons: neurons activated by performing an action or seeing another monkey or person perform the same action o study: the brain activity of a monkey watching another monkey do something was the same o found in humans with fMRI Featured Study: The Long-Term Effects of Watching Violence on TV Method - a study measured a group of children‟s aggression, amount of TV violence watched, and measured their aggressiveness 15 years later Results & Discussion - children‟s attitudes toward TV violence (ex. identifying with a violent TV character) related to level of aggression as adults - this was especially true of boys, who identified with violent TV characters Personal Application: Achieving Self-Control Through Behaviour Modification Behaviour modification: systematic approach to changing behaviour through application of principles of conditioning - specify target behaviour o can only target overt behaviours - baseline target behaviour o initial level of target behaviour - monitor the antecedents: events that typically precede a target response - monitor the consequences: factors that maintain the undesirable behaviour o ex. smoking decreases someone‟s anxiety - design a program that increases the desirable behaviour and decreases undesirable behaviour o break the link of problem behaviour to its antecedents and consequences o choose an appropriate reinforcer York SOS | 12  can give a list of reinforcers for a person to seek out appropriate reinforcers  perhaps use a token economy: system for doling out symbolic reinforcers that are exchanged for a variety of genuine reinforcers o consider using punishment, but not alone and at a mild level - execute and evaluate your program o look at the behavioural data to see if behaviour is improving o can increase compliance with the person with a behavioural contract: written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behaviour modification program Critical Thinking Application: Manipulating Emotions: Pavlov and Persuasion Classical Conditioning in Various Areas - advertising: associating products with pleasant emotions - business negotiations: fine dining and entertainment through major events elicit pleasant feelings as well as reciprocity norm (social rule of giving back the host in perhaps business deals) - politics: politicians pairing themselves with positive events, so they in turn are associated with pleasant emotions o e.g. Nazis pairing Jewish people with repulsive imagery York SOS | 13 Chapter 16:Social Behaviour Social psychology: branch of psychology concerned with way individuals‟ thoughts, feeling and behaviours are influenced by others Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others Person Perception: process of forming impressions of others - people‟s personality often judged by physical appearance, often done in the blink of an eye - more attractive people ascribed more positive characteristics and expected to lead more successful lives - people with baby-faced features perceived as more honest, trustworthy, warm, submissive, helpless and naïve - judgments of face associated with real-life outcomes o e.g. judging competence, predicted outcomes of elections surprisingly well Cognitive Schemas: organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people - help efficiently process and store wealth of information about others - for events, e.g. dates can be dinner, a movie, etc. - for people, e.g. frat boys drink a lot, are sociable, etc. Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group - ethnic stereotypes, e.g. all Germans are methodical - cognitive process that is automatic and efficient for dealing with people - broad generalizations that ignore diversity in a group o people acknowledge not everyone in that group is, but most are like the stereotype (slanted probabilities) - often can be self-fulfilling if we adjust our actions accordingly that bring out the stereotypical behaviour Subjectivity and Bias in Person Perception - stereotypes bias perception such that they see what they expect to see - illusionary correlation: occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen o e.g. “lawyers are always sneaky” o opposite is true, people tend to underestimate the number of disconfirmations that they have encountered  e.g. “I‟ve never seen an honest lawyer” - people tend to remember information about people that fit their stereotypes - evolutionary reason: stereotyping was adaptive in ancestral environment York SOS | 14 o also to quickly identify ingroup (who we identify with) and outgroup (who we don‟t identify with) Attribution Processes: Explaining Behaviour Attributions: inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others‟ behaviour and their own behaviour - people have a strong need to understand their experiences Internal versus External Attributions - internal attribution: ascribe causes of behaviour to personal dispositions, traits, abilities and feelings - external attribution: ascribe causes of behaviour to situational demands and environmental constraints Attributions for Success and Failure - people focus on stability of causes of underlying behaviour, which cuts across internal-external dimension (4 types of attributions) Bias in Attribution - actor-observer bias: observers‟ bias in favour of internal attributions in explaining others‟ behaviour o a.k.a. fundamental attribution error (FAE) o situational factors impinging on actor not readily apparent or requires more effort (less convenient) to observer o observers also tend to feel situation is not that coercive o actors favour external attribution - defensive bias: tendency to blame victims for their misfortune so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way o maintained by hindsight bias (“I knew it would happen”) and belief in a just world (world is safe and fair)  therefore, bad people get bad outcomes, whereas I‟m a good person and I won‟t receive that bad outcome - self-serving bias: tendency to attribute one‟s success to personal factors and one‟s failures to situational factors o bias grows stronger as time passes after the event Culture and Attributional Tendencies - individualism: putting personal identity ahead of group goals and defining one‟s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships o self-serving bias most prevent in individualistic cultures (exists in other cultures too though) - collectivism: putting group goals ahead and of personal goals and defining one‟s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to o collectivistic cultures less prone to FAE York SOS | 15 o self-effacing bias: attribute success to help they received from others or ease of task, while downplaying the importance of their ability (found in Japanese students)  likely to take responsibility for failure and let it motivate self- improvement Close Relationships: Liking and Loving Interpersonal attraction: positive feelings toward another Key Factors in Attraction - attractive people enjoy greater mating success - being more attractive seems to be more important for females than males - matching hypothesis: males and females seek equally-attractive mates o married couples tend to be similar in level of physical attractiveness - some research shows similarity fosters attraction o however could be due to attitude alignment: gradual modification of beliefs to match that of the partner - reciprocity: we like those who like us o reciprocity includes positive feedback aimed at self-enhancement of the partner - people routinely evaluate how well partners match ideals o the closer the match, the more attraction o however, people tend to view partners with behind rose-coloured glass (more favourably) than what‟s real Perspectives on the Mystery of Love - passionate love: complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion - companionate love: warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one‟s own - both types of love may coexist - Robert Sternberg outlined divided companionate love into 2 types: o intimacy: warmth, closeness and sharing ideas in a relationship o commitment: intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may rise - passionate love found to stimulate dopamine circuits that would be stimulated by stimulants, suggests passionate love is like an addiction - commitment is predictive of relationship stability - people with anxious-ambivalent attachment in infancy will have romantic relationships marked by anxiety and ambivalence in adulthood - secure adults found it easy to get close to others and have better relationships o tend to be secure with their sexuality - anxious-ambivalent adults found their relationships as volatile and marked by jealousy York SOS | 16 o excessive reassurance seeking: typically need reassurance from partners that they are worthy of love o tend to have sex to reduce insecurities o experience more negative emotionality after break-ups o tend to suffer from psychopathology - avoidant adults found it difficult to get close to others and found their relationships lacked intimacy and trust o tend to have more casual sex to improve peers and more likely to use sex to manipulate partners - new approach: attachment exists on continuums o attachment anxiety: how much people worry their partners will not be available when needed o attachment avoidance: degree to which people feel uncomfortable with closeness and intimacy, and thus emotionally distance o creates preoccupied subtype: high anxiety, low avoidance Culture and Close Relationships - some differences in love and relationships across cultures due to individualist- collectivist dimension - all cultures seem to value mutual attraction, kindness, intelligence, emotional stability, dependability, good health (David Buss) o as well as male‟s emphasis on female‟s physical attractiveness and female‟s emphasis on male‟s social status and financial resources - marriage based on love (especially passionate love) dominant in Western culture, while arranged marriages common in collectivist nations but decreasing in some due to Westernization - romantic love less important in collectivist cultures An Evolutionary Perspective on Attractive - aspects of good looks (physical attractiveness) are signs of sound health, good genes and high fertility, which contribute to reproductive potential - facial symmetry is key element of attractiveness across diverse cultures o asymmetry would be associated with bad genes or health - women’s waist-to-hip ratio found in many cultures o men prefer women with waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70-0.80, which appears to be a meaningful correlate of females‟ reproductive potential - men place more value on youthfulness and physical attractiveness of females for mates, because they‟re associated with reproductive potential - women place more value on ambition, social status and financial potential of males for mates, because they‟re associated with ability to invest in material resources for children - however, women value physical attractiveness when seeking short-term partner - attractive females want prospective male with both economic potential and physical attractiveness - in middle of menstrual cycle (most fertile, approaching ovulation), women prefer masculine-looking men York SOS | 17 o men seem to recognize this shift, they see other masculine men as greater threats during this time o strippers tend to earn more tip money when they are most fertile  male patrons more aware of their heightened fertility or females more sexually motivated? Attitudes: Making Social Judgments Attitude: positive or negative evaluation of objects of thought Components and Dimensions of Attitudes - may include up to 3 types of components: o cognitive component: beliefs people hold about object o affective component: emotional feelings stimulated by object o behavioural component: predispositions to act in certain ways toward object - attitude strength: strong attitudes resistant to change and durable over time, powerful impact on behaviour - attitude accessibility: how often one thinks about it and how quickly it comes to mind o positively correlated with attitude strength - attitude ambivalence: conflicted evaluations that include both positive and negative feelings about an object of thought o lower ambivalence, the more predictive of behaviour - determinants of attitude strength: o importance: subjective sense of caring and significance that a person attaches to an attitude o vested interest: exists when an attitude relates to an issue that can affect an individual personal outcomes o more knowledge and information has about object Attitudes and Behaviour - attitudes are mediocre predictors of behaviour - must consider: o attitude strength, accessibility and ambivalence into account o attitudes are usually measured in a general, global way, which isn‟t likely to predict specific behaviour o situational constraints may also affect behaviour Trying to Change Attitudes: Factors in Persuasion - source: person who sends a communication o more persuasive if credible: perceived as either expertise or trustworthy  expertise more useful when arguments are ambiguous  people tend to receive messages from trusted sources without scrutiny York SOS | 18 o likeability increases effectiveness of persuasive source  often as physical attractiveness o respond better to those who are similar to us in ways that are relevant to the issue at hand - receiver: person whom the message is sent o forewarning decreases success because it sets circumstances for receiver develop counterarguments o disconfirmation bias: arguments that conflict with one‟s prior attitudes are scrutinized longer and subjected to more sceptical analysis than arguments that are consistent with one‟s prior beliefs o stronger attitudes more resistant to change and cause more biased and selective processing of persuasive arguments o prior knowledge of issue also promotes resistance to change and scrutinize issue-relevant knowledge more carefully - message: information transmitted by the source and the channel is the medium through which the message is sent o one-sided argument: acknowledges only one side of an issue o two-sided argument: acknowledges both sides of an issue  two-sided more effective overall o best to concentrate on strongest arguments o weak arguments may raise doubts and hurt as opposed to help o repetition of message found to be effective  validity effect: repeating a statement causes it to be perceived as more valid or true o arousing fear can be effective, especially when advocating also the preventative measures Theories of Attitude Change - learning theory: o classical conditioning:  components of attitude can be learn through classical conditioning, just like emotional responses  pairing UCS with the NS associated with attitude  ex. advertising: pretty women + beer = more favourable attitude toward beer o operant conditioning:  others‟ agreeing with your attitude will reinforce your attitude and vice versa o observational learning: copy other peoples‟ attitudes - dissonance theory: inconsistency of attitudes propels people in the direction of attitude change (Leon Festinger) o cognitive dissonance: related cognitions are inconsistent (contradictory), which creates an unpleasant state of tension whereby people are motivated to reduce dissonance York SOS | 19  person paid $20 to say boring task was fun experiences less dissonance because there‟s more justification ($$$) to say it was fun  no or little attitude change  person paid $1 to say boring task was fun experiences more dissonance because there‟s less justification ($$$) to say it was fun  resolve dissonance by effort justification: changing attitude to justify exerted efforts (they found task fun) - self-perception theory: people infer theirs attitudes from looking at their behaviour (Daryl Bem) o attitudes follow behaviour o person paid $1 resolves dissonance by thinking “$1 isn‟t enough to get me to say it was fun, the task must‟ve actually been fun!” - elaboration likelihood model: 2 basic routes to persuasion (Richard Petty & John Cacioppo) o central route: taken when people carefully ponder the content and logic of messages  leads to more enduring attitude change and more predictive of behaviour o peripheral route: persuasion depends on nonmessage factors, e.g. attractiveness and credibility of source, or on conditioned emotions Conformity and Obedience: Yielding to Others Conformity: occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure - Asch’s conformity study: participants conformed to vocalized wrong answers of others 37% of the time o group size: conformity increases until a certain point where it just levels off o if one accomplice “broke” unanimity of vocalized wrong answer (even accomplice‟s answer was wrong too), subject did not conform - people more likely to conform in ambiguous situations Obedience: form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands usually from someone in a position of authority - Milgram’s obedience study: see Featured Study o moved study from Yale University setting to a business setting, slight decrease found in obedience (48%) o added accomplice teachers:  if they obeyed experimenter, slight increase in subject obedience  if they defied experimenter, dramatic decrease in subject obedience - controversy surrounding Milgram‟s experiment: o criticism: lab setting was very contrived and doesn‟t apply to real world o overall: evidence supports generalizability of the results York SOS | 20 o ethics: no informed consent, extensive deception (subjects told it was a learning study), post-study stress Cultural Variations in Conformity and Obedience - Asch and Milgram experiments show replicable results in other cultures, but mostly to industrialized cultures - higher levels of conformity found in collectivistic cultures o have a more positive view of conformity since they embrace group norms, cooperation and group harmony Behaviour in Groups: Joining with Others Group: 2 or more individuals who interact and are interdependent - traditionally in-person, but telecommunications and Internet are changing that - most have: o roles: allocate special responsibilities to members o norms: dictate suitable behaviour o communication structure: reflects who talks to whom o power structure: which members wield most influence Behaviour Alone and in Groups: The Case of the Bystander Effect - bystander effect: people less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone o first described by John Darley and Bibb Latané o people help 75% when alone, 53% when with others o occurs in ambiguous situations and due to diffusion of responsibility onto other people present o e.g. Kitty Genovese was murdered while 38 witnesses failed to come to her aid Group Productivity and Social Loafing - group productivity hindered by: o reduced efficiency from loss of coordination among workers‟ efforts o social loafing: reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves - social loafing less likely to occur when: o individuals in group motivated to achieve o for people high on agreeableness or conscientiousness o individual‟s work can be readily identifiable o smaller and more cohesive group Decision Making in Groups - risky shift: groups arrived at riskier decisions than individuals did - group polarization: group discussion strengthens group‟s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction York SOS | 21 - reasons for group polarization: o exposure to more persuasive arguments from other group members o people try to one-up another with a stronger view - groupthink: occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision (Irving Janis) o produces ineffective decision making, e.g. JFK + advisors‟ bad decision to invade Cuba in the Bay of Pigs o tend to overestimate group unanimity under a strong, dominating leader making the decisions o members withhold critical judgment o group censorship of any dissent o promotes incomplete gathering of information and confirmation bias (tendency to seek out only belief-supporting evidence) o contributed by group cohesiveness: strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself o other factors: group insulation, high stress, illusion of invulnerability, self- appointed mind guards (blocks for thinking differently) - favourable effects of groups: o more accurate o higher performance on tests Social Neuroscience Social Neuroscience: approach to research and theory in social psychology that integrates models of neuroscience and social psychology to study the mechanisms of social behaviour - amygdala involved in fear responses - higher amygdala activity when white participants shown pictures of black faces, especially in those more racially-biased Featured Study: “I Was Just Following Orders” Method - 40 men recruited from local community - experimenter instructed subject (“teacher”) to administer increasing electric shocks each time an accomplice (“learner”) answered incorrectly - wanting to leave study, teachers were prodded with “it is absolutely essential that you continue” and 3 other vocal prods Results - 26 out of 40 administered all 30 levels of shock, despite showing considerable distress about harming learner Discussion York SOS | 22 - most psychologists had speculated only 1% would administer all 30 levels of shock - pressure from authority figure can make decent people to harm others, which can be used to explain Nazi war crimes and other travesties Comments - obedience isn‟t inherently bad or wrong, since social groups sometimes need it to maintain order, e.g. police Personal Application: Understanding Prejudice Prejudice Not Equivalent to Discrimination - prejudice: negative attitude held toward members of a group - discrimination: behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group Stereotyping and Subjectivity in Person Perception - prejudice equated with stereotype, but more recently attributed to a function of cognitive, behavioural and affective factors - stereotypes can be negative or positive - both prejudice and stereotypes are activated automatically - stereotypes are highly resistant to change o members who don‟t fit the stereotype seen as unrepresentative of that group and put into their own unique subtype category of that group - memory biases can confirm person‟s prejudice, creating illusionary correlations Biases in Attribution - observers tend to attribute women‟s success to luck, ease of task (external attribution), while men‟s success to outstanding ability (internal attribution) - fundamental attribution error and defensive attribution used to explain ethnic peoples‟ negative situations and misfortunes (internal attributions = their fault) Forming and Preserving Prejudicial Attitudes - can come from copying others attitudes (observational learning) and having attitudes reinforced by others (operant conditioning) - belief in small numbers: inordinate large influence of a single person to develop attitude Explicit and Implicit Prejudice - implicit prejudice: people unaware they are carrying around prejudice - explicit prejudice: people consciously aware they are carrying around prejudice Dividing the World into Ingroups and Outgroups - ethnocentrism: tendency to view one‟s own group as superior to others as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways York SOS | 23 - people favour ingroup members over outgroup members - derogating outgroup makes one feel superior - tend to see ingroup as heterogeneous (diverse) while outgroup is homogeneous (which helps reinforce stereotypes that they‟re all the same) - 10% of people overtly display prejudices - Mindi Foster investigates factors that contribute to the tendency of disadvantaged individuals to take affirmative action to benefit group Critical Thinking: Whom Can You Trust? Analyzing Credibility and Social Influence Evaluating Credibility - someone who does not have financial gain in their vested interest is usually credible - someone with credentials and appropriate expertise, e.g. special training is usually credible o not credible when experts are paid to advocate products - good methodology promotes credibility Recognizing Social Influence Strategies - foot-in-the-door technique: getting person to agree to small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later - reciprocity norm: rule that we should pay back in kind what we receive from others - lowball technique: getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed - feigned scarcity: giving impression a product is scarce in supply increases its desire York SOS | 24 Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness The Nature of Consciousness Consciousness: awareness of internal and external stimuli - some degree of consciousness remains during sleep and sometimes under anesthesia - stream of consciousness: consciousness is constantly changing o term coined by William James o some entering thoughts are the result of intention Variations in Awareness and Control - mind wandering: people‟s experience of task-unrelated thoughts o people estimated to spend 15%-50% in mind wandering o less likely to occur in cognitively-demanding task o less aware of external world o possible connection to creativity in some contexts - controlled processing: mental processes are voluntary and effortful - automatic processing: mental processes are involuntary and lack effort - blink: judgments are made quickly and effortlessly o used by Malcolm Gladwell in book Blink (2005) Consciousness and Brain Activity - consciousness arises from activity in distributed networks of neural pathways - variations in consciousness can be measured by electroencephalograph (EEG): device that monitors electrical activity of brain over time by using electrodes attached to scalp surface o summarizes rhythm of cortical activity as line tracings called brain waves o brain waves vary in amplitude (height) and frequency (cps: cycles per second) - cortical activity divided into 4 principal bands primarily associated with different states of consciousness: o beta (13-24 cps): normal waking thought, alert problem solving o alpha (8-12 cps): deep relaxing, blank mind, meditation o theta (4-7 cps): light sleep o delta (<4 cps): deep sleep - changes in EEG activity closely related to variations in consciousness o recall: correlations don‟t determine causations o mental state and brain waves could be due to third factor (e.g. signals from subcortical structures) Biological Rhythm and Sleep Introduction York SOS | 25 - initially thought to be too subjective for serious biomedical investigation (Kenton Kroker) - in the past 3 decades, sleep connected to important processes people engage in everyday (Joseph De Koninck) - biological rhythms: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning (internal biological clocks o connected to planetary rhythms (e.g. night and day, seasons, etc.) o found in humans, animals and plants o monitor passage of time The Role of Circadian Rhythms - circadian rhythm: 24-hr biological cycles in humans and other species o influential in sleep regulation - daily cycles also produce rhythmic variations in blood pressure, urine production, hormonal secretions and other physical functions o e.g. body temperature: people generally fall asleep as body temperature drops and vice versa  optimal temperature varies from person to person  ideal temperature important for sleep quality, which supports quality over quantity argument - study found isolated subjects had longer circadian rhythm (24.2 hours) - natural light readjusts peoples‟ biological clocks o specific receptors in retina send direct inputs to suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in hypothalamus o SCN sends signals to pineal gland to secrete hormone melatonin which has a key role in adjusting clocks (Ralph Mistlberger and Mary Harrington) - research has supported central circadian pacemaker, but Benjamin Rusak suggests more complex and multifaceted structure responsible for mammalian circadian systems - human circadian rhythm regulated by multiple internal clocks with central pacemaker in SCN Ignoring Circadian Rhythms - quality of sleep suffers - jet lag: occurs when flying across time zones, internal clock needs time to adjust to new official time o chronic jet lag associated with deficits in cognitive performance o each person‟s clock adjustment time varies, usually 1 day/time zone crossed o direction of travel influences speed of adjustment  flying west lengthens day is easier to adjust to  flying east shortens day is harder to adjust to  sizable impact on performance of sports teams - shift workers: o studies show workers get less total sleep and poor-quality of sleep o increases accident proneness and affects mental and physical health York SOS | 26 o workers report more stress and lower sense of mastery or control - Daylight Savings Time in spring shift associated with increased traffic accidents for the week after the switch (Stanley Coren) Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms - melatonin can reduce effects of jet lag by readjusting clock (inconsistent findings, mainly due to timing of administering melatonin doses) - timed exposure to bright light can realign clocks of shift workers (modest and inconsistent findings) - can plan rotation of schedules for shift workers to move through progressively later starting times so there is longer periods between shift changes The Sleep and Waking Cycle - widely misunderstood as a state of physical and mental inactivity o sleepers experience quite a bit of physical and mental activity - sleep laboratories: subjects come to sleep so their sleep can be studied o subjects hooked up to EEG, EMG, EOG, heart rate, breathing, pulse rate, body temperature o electromyograph (EMG): records muscular activity and tension o electrooculograph (EOG): records eye movements Cycles through the Stages of Sleep - onset of sleep is gradual - time to fall asleep varies person to person (depends on age, level of boredom, etc.) - non-REM (NREM) sleep: consists of stages 1 through 4, marked by the absence of rapid eye moments, relatively little dreaming and varied EEG activity - stage 1: brief transitional stage of light sleep (lasts 1-7 minutes) o breathing and heart rate slow as muscle tension and body temperature decline o theta waves prominent (transition from alpha waves) o hypnic jerks: brief muscle contractions - respiration rate, heart rate, muscle tension, body temperature decline through stages 2 to 4 - stage 2: mixed EEG activity (lasts 10-23 minutes) o sleep spindles: brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves - stage 3 and 4 constitute slow-wave sleep (SWS): high-amplitude, low frequency delta waves become prominent typically reach SWS in 30 minutes and stay in SWS for roughly 30 minutes - cycle reverses itself moving backwards toward lighter stages - REM sleep: rapid eye movements (REM) dominant o coined by William Dement o occurs when sleeper returns to stage 1  instead of stage 1, it is now REM sleep o EOG used to record lateral movements beneath eyelids (ripples visible) o discovered accidentally in Nathaniel Kleitman‟s lab York SOS | 27  machine thought to be defective after detecting REM initially o “deep” stage of sleep, hard to awake (arousal rate varies person to person) o irregular breathing and pulse rate o muscle tone is extremely relaxed, sleeper is virtually paralyzed o paradox: deep stage of sleep but EEG activity dominated by high- frequency beta waves like when one is awake and alert  paradox probably related to association of REM and dreaming - most dreams reported in REM stage (dreams do occur in non-REM stages) - Tore Nielsen examined similarities and differences of REM and non-REM dreaming o examined whether 1 or 2 dream generators is better in explaining phenomena - Carlyle Smith examines relations between brain functioning in sleep and memory o suggests brain activity during sleep central to consolidation of information acquired during the day o suggests different stages of sleep implicated in memory for different types of tasks or information - different types of sleep may be important for different types of learning - sleep cycle repeated about 4 times during the night o REM periods get progressively longer, peaking at 40-60 min o NREM intervals get shorter o descents into NREM get shallower (less SWS) - adults spend 15%-20% of sleep in SWS and 20%-25% in REM sleep Age Trends in Sleep - newborns sleep 6-8 times in a day o spend more time in REM than adults, around 50% in REM sleep - REM portion declines to 30% during remainder of 1 yearst o continues to decline to 20% - in adulthood: o time in SWS declines dramatically, time spent in stage 1 increases slightly (stronger trend in men) o shift towards lighter sleep, which may contribute to more nighttime awakenings in elderly o average total sleep declines with advancing age, however a substantial number of elderly experience sleep increases Culture and Sleep - co-sleeping: practice of children and parents sleeping together o the norm looking at the whole world o discouraged by urban Western world - napping practices exist in “siesta cultures” where shops close, activities halt for afternoon 1-2 hour nap o mostly found in tropical regions o practical: allows people to avoid working during hottest part of day York SOS | 28 Neural Bases of Sleep - rhythm of sleep and waking regulated by subcortical structures deep in brain - reticular formation (found at core of brainstem) important for sleep - ascending reticular activating system (ARAS): consists of afferent fibres running through reticular formation that influence physiological arousal o cutting these fibres induces sleep (in cats) o electrical stimulation causes arousal and alertness - pons and adjacent areas critical for generation of REM sleep - specific areas in medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system have role in controlling sleep and waking - serotonin and GABA play an important roles in sleep regulation - norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine and other chemicals influence sleep regulation - therefore: sleep and walking regulated by constellation of interacting brain centres and no single “sleep centre" or “sleep chemical” Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation - trend: people cutting down on sleep to squeeze more time into day - sleep deprivation associated with increased brain sensitivity to negative emotional stimuli - sleep deprivation associated with increased accident proneness, immune impairment of regulation impairment and metabolic control, irritability, emotional difficulties, cognitive difficulties and psychopathology - schools having a later start time have found better behaviour, grades and emotional well-being in students - partial deprivation or sleep restriction: people receive substantially less sleep than normal over a period of time o negative effects most likely when subjects asked to perform long, difficult, or monotonous tasks or when subjects restrict their sleep to under 5 hours for many nights - study showed sleep-deprived subjects showed impairment on task but they felt their performance was fine - major disasters blamed on lapses in judgment arising from sleep deprivation, e.g. Chernobyl - selective deprivation: special type of partial sleep deprivation - deprivation of REM sleep: o no effect on daytime functioning o subject spontaneously shifts into REM more frequently during sleep o rebound effect: more REM in future sleep to make up for REM loss - deprivation of SWS sleep: o subject spontaneously shifts into SWS more frequently during sleep o rebound effect: more SWS in future sleep to make up for SWS loss - REM and SWS important for memory consolidation: firming up learning and promoting different types of memory o time spent in REM and SWS correlate with increments in learning York SOS | 29 o theoretical meanings of findings still debated Problems in the Night: Sleep Disorders 1) Insomnia: chronic problems in getting adequate sleep - basic patterns: o difficulty in falling asleep initially (young people) o difficulty in remaining asleep (middle-aged, elderly) o persistent early-morning wakening (middle-aged, elderly) - associated with daytime fatigue, impaired functioning, depression, elevated risk for accidents, reduced productivity, work absences and increased health problems - prevalence: o 34%-35% of adults report insomnia (about half suffer from severe or frequent insomnia) o problem: people can occasionally experience sleep difficulties o increases with age o 50% more prevalent in women than men o pseudo-insomnia or sleep state misperception: people think they get inadequate sleep  many people underestimate how much sleep they get - causes: o excessive anxiety or tension o side effect of emotional problems, such as depression and stress o pack pain, ulcers, asthma can lead to insomnia o use of cocaine and amphetamines may lead to problems in sleeping - treatment: o benzodiazepine medications (sedative) exert effects at GABA synapses o sleep experts argue overuse of sleep drugs, which has led to significant decline of its usage o 5%-15% of adults use sleep medication regularly o sleeping pills are a bad long-term solution for insomnia  carryover effects make people drowsy and sluggish the next day
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