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SOS Exam 2.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

SOS Exam-AID Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 6 – Learning • Which style of learning often plays a key role in the development of phobias? • Operant Conditioning • Observational Learning • Classical Conditioning • Escape Learning • After repeatedly hearing a bell before receiving food, a dog salivates begins to salivate upon hearing the bell alone. The bell has become a: • Conditioned Stimulus • Conditioned Response • Unconditioned Stimulus • Neutral Stimulus • Tom was bitten by a Husky when he was 5 and now he has a phobia of all dogs. This is an example of: • Stimulus Discrimination • Stimulus Generalization • Higher-order Conditioning • Spontaneous Recovery • Another name for Operant Conditioning is: • Traditional Conditioning • Traditional Learning • Thorndike’s Conditioning • Instrumental Learning 5. Operant Conditioning was is a termed that was coined by • Edward Thorndike • B.F. Skinner • Ivan Pavlov • Sigmund Freud • Reinforcement leads to: • The strengthening of a response tendency • The weakening of a response tendency • The response tendency remaining the same • The response will disappear completely • What is the key dependent variable in operant conditioning? • The type of response • The type of reinforcement • The rate of response over time • The rate of reinforcement over time • The reinforcement you would receive gambling at a casino would follow the ____________ schedule of reinforcement. • Variable Ratio • Fixed Ratio • Fixed Interval • Variable Interval • Taking away a young girls toy after she hits her brother with it is an example of: • Negative reinforcement • Positive reinforcement • Positive Punishment • Negative Punishment • Which is not one of the guidelines for how to apply punishment: A. Apply Punishment Swiftly B. Make the punishment extremely severe to insure that it will have an effect C. Make punishment consistent D. Explain the punishment • According to Martin Seligman we acquire some fears more easily than others because of: • Natural Selection • Instinctive Drift • Preparedness • Operant Conditioning • The four basic process to observational learning are: • Attention, Retention, Emotion, Motivation • Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation • Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Emotion • Attention, Reproduction, Copying, Motivation • Julie’s mother gives her a lollipop after she helps cleanup the house, this is an example of: • Positive Reinforcement • Observational learning • Positive Punishment • Shaping • Every time Mary goes to take her dog for a walk, she fills up the same silver water bottle. Now Mary notices that her dog gets excited every time she fills up this bottle. This an example of: • Operant condition • Observational Learning • Classical Conditioning • Shaping • What does Bandura call the “others” we observe and learn form? • Figures • Friends • Leaders • Models • A written agreement to adhere to the contingencies of a behaviour modification schedule is a • A Behavioural Contract • A Token Economy • A Reinforcement Schedule • A Modification Contract • The third step in a self-modification program is to: • Gather baseline data • Design your program • Execute and evaluate your program • Bring your program to an end • What type of learning accounts for the effects of mass media on behaviour: • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Observational Learning • Social Learning • When an organism acquires a response that prevents some adverse stimulation from occurring this is an example of: • Rejection • Extinction • Avoidance Learning • Negative Reinforcement • Julie’s mom makes her due the dishes because she did not eat all of her dinner. This is an example of: • Negative Punishment • Neutral Punishment • Parental Reinforcement • Positive Punishment Short Answer Questions • Describe the three main theories of learning and provide an example for each. • Describe the four types of reinforcement schedules and provide an example for each. • Define extinction and resistance to extinction. Chapter 16 – Social Behaviour • Stereotyping is: • Normal and frequently automatic cognitive process • Not something that we do anymore • Only found in young children • An abnormal cognitive process • According to social psychologists, a group that one belongs to and identifies with is the: • Out-group • Social group • In-group • Indentifying group • Sally gets shoved by another women and immediately attributes this shove to the fact that the woman is mean. This is an example of: • The Halo Effect • A defensive attribution • An external attribution • The Fundamental Attribution Error • Individualism is common in _______ societies and collectivism is common in ________ societies: • Western, Eastern • Eastern, Western • Northern, Southern • Southern, Northern • What are the three components of attitudes. • Cognitive, Affective and Physiological • Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural • Cognitive, Relational and Behavioural • Cognitive, Relational and Physiological • Credibility is a _________ factor in persuasion • Message • Channel • Source • It is not a factor • The four factors of persuasion are: • Message, Channel, Source, Receiver • Message, Customer, Source, Media • Message, Channel, Source, Media • Message, Customer, Source, Receiver • Dissonance theory was proposed by • B.F. Skinner • Leon Festinger • Daryl Bem • Eric Erikson • Julie likes Mark and she can tell that he likes her too. This could possinblybe the ____________ at work: • Similarity Effects • Equal Attractiveness • Romance • The Reciprocity Effect • The two different forms of love proposed by Hatfield and Berschid are: • Passionate and Companionate • Romantic and Companionate • Romantic and Compassionate • Passionate and Compassionate • Amanda often worries that her partner doesn’t love her and wishes she could be closer to him. According to Hazan & Shaver, she may have a: • Secure attachment style • Avoident attachment style • Friendly attachment style • Anxious-ambivalent attachment style • Self perception theory states that people • Infer their attitudes from others • Infer their attitudes from their behaviour • Don’t know much about their attitudes • Attitudes determine their behaviour • Critics of Milgram’s studies argue all but the following: • His studies can’t be generalized to the real world • The deception was to extensive and thus it was not ethical • He didn’t make the deception strong enough so people knew what was being tested • Both A & B • John was in large crowd at the bus station when he saw a women fall down. He could tell she was hurt but he did not stop to help. This is likely due to: • Diffusion of responsibility • Ambiguity of the situation • He was running late • All of the above • An implicit attitude is: • Conscious • Unconscious • Controllable • Both B & C • Social Loafing is: • When people are more friendly in a group than by themselves • When people exert less effort working in a group than when working alone • When people don’t like other members of their group • When people in a group refuse to work as team • Prejudice and discrimination: • Always go hand in hand • Never go hand in hand • Often correspond but not always • Are no longer prominent in American societies • Children can learn prejudiced attitudes from their parents through the process of: • Genetics • Information Transmission • Education • Observational Learning • Asking someone if you can have 2 minutes of their time for a survey, and then asking them for another 15 minutes of their time to do one more survey, is an example of: • Lying • Deception • Foot-in-the-door technique • Door-in-the-face technique • Social loafing: • May be less prevalent in collectivist cultures • May be more prevalent i
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