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Psyc1010 - Test 3 package- final (1).pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC1010 TEST 3 STUDY PACKAGE Package Created by: Yifeng Lu, Dallas Weaver, Marietta Cini, Jessie Zhang, Anum Aziz Exam-AID Tutor: Frederyck Franco & Anum Aziz Preface This document was created by the York University chapter of Students Offering Support (York SOS) to accompany our PSYC1010 Exam-AID session. It is intended for students enrolled in Professor Jubis’s sections of 2012/2013 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY – PSYC1010 course who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the exam. Please do NOT share this with other students and instead tell them about the session or to contact York SOS to make a donation to get a copy of it. ([email protected]) References th Myers, David G. (2012). Psychology 10 Edition in Modules. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. Tips for General Midterm Success Use mnemonics to remember concepts better. An example of a mnemonic would be acronyms. Do practice multiple choice questions. Doing these practice questions can assess your understanding of what you have learned and can help you identify areas of weakness. Practice multiple choice questions are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Read a multiple choice question and try to answer it BEFORE looking at the possible answers. Having an answer in mind before looking at possible answers can reduce the chances of being fooled by wrong answers. Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For example, if you know that answer A is wrong, then logically an answer “A and B are correct” in the same question must also be incorrect. When you don ‟t know the answer, eliminating wronganswers (as opposed to just random guessing) can increase your chances of getting the question right. Practice writing answers to short answer questions. If you know ahead of time what the questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. If you don’t know what questions will be on the short answer section, you could try scanning the material to identify concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you can make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. Even if the question you thought of doesn’ t show up on the short answer section, doing this can help solidify what you learned. Don’t spend too much time on a difficult question. It is better to move onto easier questions to ensure getting those marks than to get hung up on a difficult question, especially when time is limited. Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future. Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during the test the next day, but your brain has not effectively learned the material. What is Students Offering Support? Students Offering Support is a national network of student volunteers working together to raise funds to raise the quality of education and life for those in developing nations throughraising marks of our fellow University students. This is accomplished through our Exam-AID initiative where student volunteers rungroup review sessions prior to a midterm or final exam for a $20 donation. All of the money raised through SOS Exam-AIDs is funneled directly into sustainable educational projects in developing nations. Not only does SOS fund these projects, but SOS volunteers help build the projects on annual volunteer trips coordinated by each University chapter. Memory Module 23 – Studying and Building Memories Memory: persistence learning of information over time through storage and retrieval Learning occurs in three ways: 1) Recall:retrieving information that’s not in your conscious awareness but that was learned earlier (tested by fill-in-the-blank) 2) Recognition:identifying items previously learned (tested by multiple choice question) 3) Relearning: learning something more quickly when you learn it a second time (when you study for an exam or use a language you had learned during your childhood, you will relearn the material better than you did the first time around) - Retention is keeping or maintaining information in your mind - Ebbinghaus examined retention through “relearning” o Randomly selected a sample of syllables, practiced them, and tested himself o The next day, he could recall a few of the syllables  they weren’t entirely forgotten o The more frequently he rehearsed the list on day 1, the fewer times he had to repeat it on day 2 to relearn it *We remember more than we can recall* - Information-processing models are analogies that compare the human memory to a computer’s operations - To remember anything we must o Encode  get info into ourbrain o Store  retain that info o Retrieve get that info back out - Computer models have their limits, but our memories are more fragile - Most computers process info sequentially - Our brain processes many things simultaneously (some of them unconsciously)through “parallel processing” - To focus on this concept, one model called “connectionism”, looks at memories as products of interconnected neural networks o Specific memories arise from particular activation patterns within these networks o Every time you learn something new, your brain’s neural connections change, forming and strengthening pathways that allow you to interact with and learn from your constantly changing environment - To explain the process of how we form memories,Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a three-stage model: 1) We record to-be-remembered info as a brief memory  sensory memory 2) Then, we move this info into the short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal before it’s either stored or forgotten (digits of a phone number while dialing) 3) Finally, this info moves into the long-term memory for later retrieval (knowledge, skills, experience) - Working memory: newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual info, and of info retrieved from long-term memory o Ex: right now you’re using your working memory to link the information you’re reading with things you’ve stored in your memory from previous classes o The page you’re reading might enter the working memory through vision. You might repeat the info using auditory rehearsal (reading it out loud). o As you input this information into your existing long-term memory, your attention becomes focused o According to Baddeley, the “central executive” handles this process of focusing o Without focused attention, information often fades - Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model looked at how we process our explicit memories(memory of facts and experiences you can consciously know) - However, our mind operates on two tracks - It processes explicit memories through effortful processing (encoding that requires attention) but some information skips our conscious and goes straight into storage o This is called automatic processing, that happens without our awareness and produces implicit memories - Our two-track memory system reinforces a key component of parallel processing o Mental feats like vision, thinking, and memory seem to be single abilities but they aren’t. - Without conscious effort, we automatically process info about: o Space – right now you’re encoding the place on this page where certain material appears and later if you want to retrieve information about explicit memories, you might visualize the place on this page where it is written o Time – while going through your day, you might unintentionally note the sequence of events and later if you’ve forgotten your coat somewhere, that sequence you encoded will help you retrace your steps o Frequency – you unconsciously keep track of how many times things happen like when you suddenly realize “this is the third time she asked me that” - Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli –a photographic or picture- image memory that lasts no more than less than a second o Demonstrated by Sperling in an experiment where he asked people to recall letters after sounding a high, medium, or low tone immediately after people were able to recall better - Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli – if attention is diverted, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds o If you’re having a conversation with someone but get distracted by the TV, you’ll still be able to recover the last few words they said - The short-term memory can retain about 7 information bits and unless it is rehearsed, verbal information may be quickly forgotten - The working memory on the other hand, reflects intelligence - Some ways in which you can remember new information effectively include: o Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units in order to recall more easily  Usually occurs naturally o Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices (acronyms, etc.) o Hierarchies:organizing information into broad concepts divided into specific categories o Spacing Effect:tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice  So, it’s better to study over time than to cram  helps you keep information more effectively o Testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than just reading  So, you gain a better memory of something by retrieving it (testing yourself) than just reading it - We process information at different levels and this affects our long-term retention o Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words o Deep processing: encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention - You can also make information meaningful to you personally inorder to remember it better o When asked how well certain adjectives describe someone else, we often forget them afterwards. When asked how well certain adjectives describe us, we remember the words well  self-reference effect Module 25: Retrieval - When you encode a piece of information into your memory (like the name of the person sitting beside you in class)you associate other bits of information about your surroundings, mood, etc as retrieval cuesthat can help you remember things next time - Priming: activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory o Ex: seeing or hearing the wordrabbit, primes association with a hare o Priming is like “memoryless memory”  instinct thinking o Putting yourself in the same context as where you experienced something before can prime your memoryretrieval  You might be taking notes right now and need to sharpen your pencil. So you go into another room to get a sharpener but when you get there, you forget why you’re there. Then, you come back here and realize “oh yeah, I needed the sharpener!”  This may be because in this room there are cues to help your memory, but in the other room there was nothing to remind you of why you went there. This is context-dependent memory - State-dependent memoryis when you can more easily recall something if you’re in the same state as when you learned it initially (drunk, sober, etc.) - Mood-congruent memory:the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood o When you’re happy, you recall happy memories and see the world as a happy place. If you’re depressed, you’re more likely to recall sad events and feelings. - Serial-position effect:our tendency to recall best the last and first items on a list Module 26: Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory - Anterograde amnesia: an inability to form new memories - Retrograde amnesia:an inability to recall old memories o People suffering from amnesia can be classically conditioned to perform tasks (job skills, find their way to a bathroom, etc.) because they form implicit memories, even though they don’t know that they’ve learned these things (they can’t form explicit memories) - Age affects our ability to encode efficiently - When details are not encoded, we don’t remember them o We know what a penny looks like (its shape, color, general look), but we wouldn’t be able to easily recall every tiny detail and letter on the penny because we didn’t encode it into our long-term memory - Even after encoding something, we sometimes forget it  stored memories decay o Ebbinghaus researched the durability of stored memories and found that the course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time. - Sometimes, forgetting is not memories fading but rather memories unretrieved o Ex: when aname is at the “tip of your tongue” yet you can’t access it o Could be helped through retrieval cues (Ex: “a name that starts with M”) - Retrieval problems occasionally stem from interference o Proactive interference:the disruption effect of prior learning on the recall of new information (Ex: getting a new lock combination but the old combination interferes) o Retroactive interference:the disruption effect of new learning on the recall of old information (Ex: singing new lyrics to the tune of an old song can make it hard to remember the original lyrics) o Information obtained an hour before sleep minimizes chances of interferences and increases your chances of remembering it well - Retrieval problems can also occur due to motivated forgetting o Repression:in psychoanalytic theory (Freud), the basic defense mechanism that lets us banish painful or unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and memories to minimize anxiety  But the repressed memory stays and can be brought up during therapy or by a specific cue  People might still have memories of traumatic events that they would rather not remember - Memories are not precise o Misinformation effect:incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event (Ex: eyewitnesses trying to reconstruct their memories of an accident might exaggerate or recall things that didn’t exactly happen) o Imagination and visualizing something can make it seem familiar, eventually leading you to believe that it’s a real memory - Source amnesia: attributing an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined to the wrong source (aka source misattribution) o Source amnesia and misinformation effect are the main causes of false memories o Déjà vu: the eerie sense that you have experienced this moment before  Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience - Hindsight bias:how people feel today tends to be how they recall they have always felt - Deciding what memories from the past are real and which are constructed is a difficult issue that affects eyewitness testimonies, reports from children, and recollections of child abuse. o Injustice is known to happen with innocent people being accused while at the same time, real memories are not valued and people who claim they had been abused are neglected. o Therapy can help in providing clarity, but this is a constant debate with psychologists - Some ways in which you can improve your memory include: o Studying repeatedly over spaced out periods of time o Making the material meaningful to yourself o Using retrieval cues (re-creating the situation you were in when you first learned it) o Use mnemonic devices o Minimizing interference o Sleep more o Test your knowledge to rehearse it and also to figure out what you don’t know well enough yet Thinking, Language and Intelligence Module 27– Thinking Concepts – what is cognition and what are the functions of concepts? • Cognition – area of study that focuses on the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information • Concepts – mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, and people o Ex: chair – high chair, reclining chair, dentist’s chair • Concepts are formed often by developing prototypes– a mental image or best example of a category o Ex: robin is a bird is easier to agree to than penguin is a bird because robin is ‘birdier’ o Ex: we associate sharp chest pain with heart attack, if, however, we have shortness of breath, exhaustion, a dull weight in the chest, we would be less likely to seek help because we don’t recognize as easily that it may be a heart attack Problem solving: Strategies and obstacles • Trial and error o Ex: Thomas Edison tried thousands of light bulb filaments before finding the one that works • Algorithms – step by step procedure that guarantees solution o Ex: finding a word using 10 letters in SPLOYOCHYG • Heuristics – simpler thinking strategies o Reduce number of options in SPLOYOCHYG by grouping letters that often appear together (i.e. CH and GY) and exclude rare combinations of letters (i.e. YY) o Then use trial and error o Answer: PSYCHOLOGY • Insight – an abrupt, true-seeming, and often satisfying solution –the Aha! Moment • Confirmation bias – we are more likely to actively seek out evidence that support our idea than those that refute • Once we incorrectly represent a problem, it’s hard to restructure how we approach it o Fixation – an example is a mental set – tendency to approach a problem with the mind- set of what has worked for uspreviously o This is why sometimes we want to look at a problem from a fresh perspective or have someone else look at it because they may have a different way to approach it Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgments • We make hundreds of decisions every day, we mainly follow our intuition– our fast, automatic, unreasoned feeling and thoughts Availability Heuristic • Enable snap judgments • Mental shortcut that occurs when we are making judgments about how likely something will happen based on how easy it is think of examples (availability) o Ex: we fear flying because we think of air-plane crashes (yet air-plane travel is statistically the safest) o Ex: we do not concern ourselves with global warming as much because there’s lack of evidence around us (comparably speaking) • We reason emotionally and neglect probabilities; over-feel and under-think Overconfidence • Overestimation of accuracy of our knowledge and judgments o E.g. projects generally take two days more than what we predict would take us Belief Perseverance • Tendencyto cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence • Fuels social conflicts • Remedy: consider the opposite– be objective and unbias as much as possible The effects of framing • Faming – the way we present an issue, sways our decisions and judgments o E.g. A: 10% will die from this surgery; B: 90% will live • Powerful persuasion tool o E.g. for countries in which the default option to organ donation is “yes” with option to opt-out, almost 100% of the people agree to be donors; in other countries where default is “no” with opt-in choice, only 25% are donors Perils and powers of intuition • Intuitionis huge o the unconscious influences our judgments o Dutch psychologists: we work better on complex decisions when we are not thinking about it – “sleep on it” • Intuition is usually adaptive o Ex: we intuitively assume fuzzy looking objects are far away but we also know that’s not the fact on a foggy morning • Intuition is recognition born of experience o Implicit knowledge – how to ride a bike • We should remember to check our intuition against reality Do other species share our cognitive skills? Using concepts and numbers • Pigeonscan sort pictures of alike objects into categories (concepts) • African Grey parrot – Alex– could comprehend numbers up to 6, could speak the number of objects Displaying insight • Psychologist Wolfgang Kohler showed we are not the only creatures to display insight • Experiment: placed food and a long stick outside a cage; placed a short stick inside the case with the chimpanzee; after failed attempts to reach the food with the short stick, chimpanzee surveyed the situation, used shortstick to reach long stick and used long stick to reach food Using tools and transmitting culture • Other species invent behaviors and transmit cultural patterns • Researchers found at least 39 local customs related to chimpanzee tool use, grooming, courtship – there are differences among different groups Other cognitive skills • Baboon knows everyone’s voice within its 80 member troop • Sheep recognize and remember individual faces • Chimpanzees and two species of monkeys can read your intent • Great apes and dolphins demonstrate self-awareness • Elephants display abilities to learn, remember, discriminate smells, empathize, cooperate, teach, and spontaneouslyuse tools • Chimpanzees show altruism, cooperation and group aggression Module 28– Language and Thought Language: our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning - Language transmits knowledge whether spoken, written or signed, language enables mind to mind information transfer Language Structure - There are three building blocks for spoken language 1. Phonemes: all the distinctive sound units in a language 2. Morphemes: are the smallest units that carry meaning in a given language 3. Grammar: is the system of rules that enables us to communicate with one another Language development - We remember words in our minds without hesitation - Form sentences on the fly without thinking about them first When do we learn language? - Receptive language: infants start without language, and at four months can recognize differences in speech sounds. o Babies can also read lips (example: known that ah comes from wide open lips) o This is the beginning of the babies receptive language o Seven months they begin to segment spoken sounds into individuals words - Productive language: their ability to produce words, matures after their receptive language o Recognize noun verb differences o Babbling stage: being at about four months the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language o Speech in the stage is from simply mouth movements such as closing the lips or bunching in the tongue in the front of the mouth o At 10 months, babbling has changed to that a trained ear can identify the household languages, babies need exposure to other languages so they can hear and produce sounds and tones found outside their native language - One word stage: happens at the first birthday, this is the stage in speech development that last from 1 to 2 years during which a child speaks mostly in single words o Know that sounds carry meanings, and are able to associate words and pictures - Two word stage: beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two word statements o Two word sentences in telegraphic speech (uses mostly nouns and verbs) - Out of this phase they being to utter long phrases Explaining language development - Noam Chomsky says that all language share some basic elements that is called universal grammar o All languages have nouns, verbs, and grammatical building blocks - Statistical learning: when adults listen to an unfamiliar language the syllables all run together, but when a baby does it is differentas they have the ability to learn statistical aspects of human speech o Why: their brains discern word break, they statistically analyze often fo together Critical periods - Adults couldn’t learn this way because childhood seems to represent a critical period for mastering certain aspects of language before the language learning window closes o Adults who do attempt it, don’t master the grammar or don’t have the proper accent o If by age seven those who have not been exposed to either a spoken or signed language lose ability to master any language o Those who learn it latter show less right hemisphere brain activity in regions that are active as native signers read sign langue o This is important for deaf people to be exposed to sign language early as the same concept holds o When you lose one sense, you have a better mastery of your other senses The Brain and Language - Aphasia: an impairment of language can result from damage to any of several cortical areas o Some of these people can speak fluently but cannot read , while others can comprehend what they read but cannot speak o This shows that language is complex and that different brain areas must serve different language functions - Damage to the left frontal lobe (Brocas area) a person would struggle to speak words while still being able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech - Damage to the left temporal lobe (wernicke’s area) people could speak only meaningless words o These two parts are critical areas for language o Broca’s area:control language expression, located in the left hemisphere that direct the muscle movement involved in speech o Wernicke’s area: control language reception, involve din comprehension and expression Important to remember - The brain operates by diving its mental functions – speaking, perceiving, thinking, remembering into different sub functions (the same happens with vision) Do Other Species HaveLanguage? - Animals show comprehension of language o Example: monkeys send different alarm cries from different predators , and other monkeys responds and act accordingly o Chimpanzees have the ability to communicate in American sign language (ASL) - Overall animals: show insight, family loyalty, communicate with other another, care for one another and transmit cultural pattern across generations Language Influences Thinking - Whorf: language determines the way we think “language shapes a person’s basic ideas o Linguistic determinism: Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think o To extreme  Words may not determine what we think but they do influence our thinking  Example: asked to draw a girl pushing a boy (language that read left to right would put the girl on the left and boy on right, while people who speak Arabic would do the opposite)  Influence our thinking about colours, we see the same but use our native language to classify and remember the colours - To expand language is to expand the ability to think Thinking in Images - Composers, poets, mathematicians, athletes and scientists - If you watch the activity, it will activate the brains internal simulation of it - Mental rehearsal can help you achieve an academic goal o Outcome simulation added 2 points to their exam scores average o Process simulation: reading a textbook, going over notes, eliminating distractions, result is that actually did their work resulting in 8 points increase in average - Point to remember: it is better to spend your time thinking of how you are going to get somewhere than to dwell on the imagine destination Module 29: Introduction to Intelligence • Intelligence experts say: intelligence is a concept and not a “thing” • In many research studies, intelligence has been definedas whatever intelligence tests measure, which has tended to be school smarts • Intelligence is not a quality that has the same meaning to everyone all over the globe • People assign the term intelligence to the qualities that enable success in their own time and their own culture Intelligence- the ability to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations An intelligence test-assesses people’s natural abilities and compares them with others, using numerical scores • Charles Spearman (1863-1945) believed we have one general intelligence (often shortened to g) General intelligence (g)-a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and therefore measured by every task on intelligence • He granted that people often have special abilities that stand out and he helped develop factor analysis Factor analysis- a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score • Spearman also found that those who score high in one area, such an verbal intelligence, typically score higher than average in other areas • He believes a common skill set, the g factor, underlies all intelligence behavior • The idea of general mental capacity expressed by a single intelligence score was controversial in Spearman’s day and remains so today • L.L. Thurston (1887-1955) was Spearman’s early opponent • He gave 56 different tests to people and mathematically identified 7 clusters of primary mental abilities (word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning and memory) • He did not rank people on a single scale of general aptitude • When other investigators studies these profiles, they detected a persistent tendency: those who excellent in one of the seven clusters generally scored well on others • Investigators concluded, there was still some evidence of a g factor • Satoshi Kanazawa argues that general intelligence evolved as a form of intelligence that helps people solve novel problems • More common problems require a different sort of intelligence • Kanazawa asserts that general intelligence scores do correlate with the ability to solve various novel problems (like those found in academic situation) but do not correlate with individuals skills in evolutionarily familiar situations • Howard Gardner views intelligence as multiple abilities that come in different packages • Gardner argues that we do not have an intelligence but rather multiple intelligence Savant syndrome-a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing • Recent research, using factor analysis, has confirmed that there is a general intelligence factor: g matters • It predicts performance on various complex tasks and various jobs • K. Anders Ericsson reported a 10 year rule: a common ingredient of expert performance in chess, dancing, sports, music and medicine is about 10 years of intense daily practice • Therefore human performance tends to peak near midlife • Robert Sternberg agrees that there is more to success than traditional intelligence and with Gardner’s idea of multiple intelligences • He proposes a triarchic of three intelligence o Analytical (academic, problem solving) intelligence is assessed by intelligence tests, which present well defined problems having a single right answer. Such tests predict school grades reasonably well and vocation success more modestly o Creative intelligence is demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas o Practical intelligence is required for everyday task with multiple solutions • Business executives who score relatively high on this test tend to earn high salaries and receive high performance ratings • Gardner and Sternberg agree that multiple abilities can contribute to life success • Also agree that the differing varieties of giftedness add spice to life and challenges for education Comparing Theories of Intelligence Theory Summary Strengths Other Considerations Spearman’s general A basic intelligence Different abilities, such Human abilities are too intelligence (g) predicts our abilities in as verbal and spatial, do diverse to be varied academic areas have some tendency to encapsulated by single correlate general intelligence factor Thurstone’s primary Our intelligence may be A single g score is not as Even Thurstone's seven mental abilities broken down into 7 informative as scores mental abilities show a factors: word fluency, for seven primary tendency to cluster, verbal comprehension, mental abilities suggesting an spatial ability, underlying g factor perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning and memory Gardner’s multiple Our abilities are best Intelligence is more Should all of our intelligences classified into 8 than just verbal and abilities be considered independent mathematical skills. intelligences? Shouldn’t intelligences, which Other abilities are some be called less vital include a broad range of equally important to talents? skills beyond traditional our human adaptability school smart Sternberg’s triarchic Our intelligence is best These three facets can 1. These three facets classified into 3 areas be reliably measured. may be less that predict real world independent than success: analytical, Sternberg thought creative, and practical. and may actually share an underlying g factor 2. Additional testing is needed to determine whether these facets can reliably predict success. Intelligence and Creativity Creativity-the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable • Studies suggest that a certain level of aptitude- a score about 120 on a standard intelligence test- supports creativity • Intelligence matters yet there is more to creativity than what intelligence tests reveal • The two kinds of thinking engage different brain areas • Intelligence tests require convergent thinking-inquiry to the left parietal lobe demands this ability • Creativity tests requires divergent thinking • Inquiry to certain areas of the frontal lobes can leave reading, writing and arithmetic skills intact but destroy imagination • Although there is no agreed upon creativity measure-there is no Creativity Quotient (CQ) correspond to an IQ score • Sternberg and his colleagues have identified 5 components of creativity: 1. Expertise-well-developed base of knowledge, furnishes ideas, images and phrases we use as mental building blocks. More blocks we have more chances we have to combine them in novel ways. Wiles’ well-developed base of knowledge put the needed theorems and methods at his disposal 2. Imaginative thinking skills provide the ability to see things in novel ways, to recognize patters and make connections. Having mastered a problem’s basic element we redefine or explore it in a new way 3. A venturesome personality seeks new experiences, tolerate ambiguity and risk and perseveres in overcoming obstacles 4. Intrinsic motivation is being driven more by interest, satisfaction and challenge than by external pressures. Creative people focus less on extrinsic motivators that on the pleasure and stimulation of the work itself 5. Creative environment sparks supports and refines creative ideas. Creative-fostering environments support innovation, team-building and communication. Also support contemplation. • Distinct from academic intelligence is social intelligence-know how involved in successfully comprehending social situations • Others have explored the difficulty that some smart people have processing and managing social information • This idea is especially significant for an aspect of social intelligence that John Mayer, Peter Salovey and David Caruso have called emotional intelligence • They have developed a test that assess 4 emotional intelligence components: o Perceiving emotions (to recognize them in faces, music and stories) o Understanding emotions (to predict them and how they change and blend) o Managing emotion (to how to express them in varied situations) o Using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking Emotional intelligence-the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions • Emotionally intelligence is less a matter of conscious effort than of one’s unconscious processing of emotional information Brain Size and complexity • A review of 37 brainimaging studies revealed associations between intelligence and brain size and activity in a specific areas, especially within the frontal and parietal lobes • Intelligence is having ample gray matter (mostly neural cell bodies) plus ample white matter (axons) that make for efficient communications between brain centres • Neuroscientist are studying brain’s functioning to explain intelligence • A typical experiment flashes an incomplete stimulus a masking image, another image that overrides the lingering afterimage of the incomplete stimulus Module 30: Assessing intelligence Alferd Binet: Predicating School achievement th - Modern intelligence testing began at the turn of the 20 century - Believed that all children follow the same course of development but some develop more rapidly - Sought to measure each child’s mental age, the level of performance typically associated with a certain chronological age o Example: a nine year old has a mental age of nine - Believed that mental aptitude shows up in various ways - Developed a test to identify which students needed particular attention Lewis Terman: the Innate IQ - Extended the upper end of the tests range from teenagers to superior adults - Named the test the Stanford Benet - This test was the bases for the intelligence quotient developed by William stern o IQ is the mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 - This method is no longer used o Instead they compare the person performance relative to the average performance of others the same age Modern Tests of Mental Abilities - Achievement tests: to reflect what you have learned - Aptitude tests: predict your ability to learn a new skill - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) o Similarities: reasoning the commonality of two objects o Vocabulary: naming pictured objects or defining words o Block design: visual abstract process o Letter number sequencing: hearing a series of number and repeating them back Principals of Test Construction - Standardization:defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group - Normal curve: symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical attributes o Midpoint: average score of 100 o Average to extreme - A performance higher than all but 2 percent of all scored earns an intelligence score of 130 - A performance lower than 98 of all scores earns an intelligence score of 70 - Reliability: the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the tests or on retesting - To check this they retest people - Scores must correlate to prove reliability Validity: the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to - Content validity: extent to which a test samples the behaviour that is of interest - But test are expected to have predictive validity o The success with which a test predicts the behaviour it is designed to predict o They should predict future performance - Generally these tests are not predictive as they are reliable o When we validate a test using a wide range of people but the use it with a restricted range of people it losses in predictive validity The Dynamics of Intelligence Aging and Intelligence Phase One: cross Sectional evidence for Intellectuals decline - Older adults give fewer correct answers on IQ tests then younger adults - This mental decline is natural in adults Phase Two: Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual Stability - Gave tests to the same cohort of people (a group of people from a given time period) they found that until late in life intelligence remained the same or even increased Phase Two: It all depends - Crystallized intelligence: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age - Fluid intelligence: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late adulthood o This explains why older adults are less likely to embrace new technologies Stability over a life span The stability of intelligence scores early in life? - Casual observations and intelligence tests before age 3 only modestly predict children’s future aptitudes - By age four, children’s performances on intelligence tests begins to predict their adolescent and adult scores - More intelligent children and adults live healthier and longer. Why could this be? o Intelligence facilities more education, better jobs and environment o Intelligence encourages healthy living Extremes of Intelligence - The low extreme: intellectual disability, a condition of limited mental ability - For an intelligence test with 100 as average and a standard deviation of 15 that means an IQ of 70 or below - This is a developmental condition - Intellectual disability is not based on IQ scores alone o Only measures SOME of a person ability to function, need to look at conceptual skills, social and practical skills - Down syndrome: a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 The High Extreme - Score high on the verbal aptitude test you were more likely to become a professor of humanities or write a book - Children have different gifts being math, cerbal reasoning, art or social learning - Cant educate people as if they are all alike - Must provide appropriate developmental placement suited to each child’s talents Module 31– Genetic and Environmental influences on intelligence Twin and Adoption Studies • Do people who share the same genes also share mental abilities? – YES o Intelligence test scores of identical twins reared together are virtually as similar as those of the same person taking the same test twice  Result for fraternal twins (typically share half of their genes) is much less similar  Heritability of intelligence –intelligence test score variation can be attribute to genetic variation - range between 50-80% o Brain scans revel that identical twins’ brains are build and function similarly  Similar gray and white matter volume  Virtually the same in areas associated with verbal and spatial intelligence  Similar activity while doing mental tasks o Researchers identified chromosomal regions important to intelligence – pinpointed specific genes that seemingly influence variations in intelligence and learning disabilities  Intelligence appears to involve many genes– polygenetic • However, heredity is not the only answer, environmentis also important o Twin studiesshow some environmental contribution to IQ score o If environment vary widely – environmental differences are more predictive of intelligence scores o Adoption enhances intelligence scores of mistreated or neglected children • Nature vs. Nurture –researchers compared intelligence test scores of adopted children with those of their adoptive siblings, biological parents, adoptive parents– results: o During childhood, intelligencetest scores of adoptive siblings correlate modestly o Over time, adopted children accumulate experience in their differing adoptive families– mental similarities between adopted children and their adoptive families wane with age until correlation approaches zero by adulthood o Genetic influences –not environmental ones become more apparent as we accumulate life experience Environmental influences • Life experiences do matter Early environmental influences • Among the poor, environmental conditions can depress cognitive development • Relieve infant malnutrition with nutritional supplements, and poverty’s effect on physical and cognitive development lessens • Although poor environment can depress normal brain development– no environment factor makes a genius Schooling and intelligence • Schooling and intelligenceinteract – both enhance later income • Aptitude benefits dissipate over time • What we accomplish with our intelligence depends also on our own beliefs and motivation • Motivation affects intelligence test performance –e.g. monetary reward • Carol Dweck: Believing intelligence is biologically set and unchanging can lead to ‘fixed mindset’ – believe intelligence is changeable  ‘growth mindset’  focus on learning and growing happily flourish Group Differences in intelligence test scores Gender similarities and differences • As far as general intelligence is concerned, men and women are the same species • Girls are more verballyfluent, better spellers, better at location objects, detecting emotions, and more sensitive to touch, taste, and color • Boys outperform in spatial ability test, complex math problems (but computational math/overall math performance do not differ) • Male’s mental ability scores
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