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PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Connectionism, Semantic Network, Forgetting Curve

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

of 14
Psych Review Test 2 Chapters 6, 7, 10, 11
Chapter 6- Learning
Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour due to knowledge due to behaviour
Pavlovs UCS,UCS,CS,CR Primary( biological) /secondary-(conditioned) reinforces
Basic Processes in Conditioning
- Acquisition: Forming new responses
- Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses
- Spontaneous Recovery
- Stimulus Generalization
- Stimulus Discrimination
- Higher-Order Conditioning
Figure 6.6
Operant Conditioning- Form of learning in which responses are governed by consequences
Thorndike’s Law of Effect- response in the Presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effect
association between stimulus and response is strengthened
Skinners Box/ Operant Box
- Reinforcement
- Operant chamber
- Reinforcement contingencies (rules)
- Cumulative Recorder
Schedules of reinforcement
- Continuous reinforcement (all the time)
- Intermittent/partial reinforcement (sometimes)
- Positive Reinforcement- rewarding stimulus
- Negative Reinforcement- removal of a unpleasant stimulus
- Escape Learning
- Avoidance Learning
- Punishment- leads to weakening in response
Changing Directions in the Study of conditioning
- Instinctive Drift (animals biological response interferes with conditioning response
- Observational learning albert Bandura watch a behaviour and mimic, might stay
depending on response.
Chapter 7-Human Memory
Encoding Forming a memory code (This is how info gets into your memory)
- Attention involves focusing on a narrow range of stimuli or events
Attention usually filters out most potential stimuli only allowing a few to enter into conscious
Stimuli can be screened out during sensory input or later after the brain has processed the
meaning or significance of the input.
Location of the attention filter is flexible rather than fixed ex
High load task ----------- Consumes attention capacity therefore early selection
Low Load Task------------Consumes less attention capacity therefore late selection
Figure 7.1
Levels of processing
Levels of processing Theory- Deeper levels of processing leads to longer lasting memory
Not all attention is created equally
Craig and Lockhart- incoming info is processed at different levels
- Structural encoding- physical structure, how they were printed
- Phonemic encoding words sound like
- Semantic encoding- thinking about the object and actions word represents
Enriched Encoding-enhance encoding and retention
Elaboration- Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding. More examples more
Visual imagery- creation of visual images to represent the words being remembered ex juggler
Easier to remember concrete words like juggler than abstract words like truth
According to Paivio- Dual coding theory memory is enhanced by forming sematic and visual
coder to recall
Imagery facilities memory b/c it provides a second type of memory
Self- Referent- Deciding whether info is personally relevant, recall of info tends to be slanted in favour of
material that is personally relevant.
Storage-Maintaining info in memory- storing info on a hard drive
There are three memory stores: Sensory, Short-Term and Long Term memory
Sensory Memory- Preserves info in its original context for a fraction of a second
Short Term Memory-(limited Capacity) Maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 sec
Can be kept indefinitely by rehearsal by repetitively rehearsing or thing about the information
-Maintenance Rehearsal- maintaining info in consciousness
- Elaborative increasing prob of remembering in future focusing on meaning of word
Capacity of storage
George Miller “ The magical number Seven plus or minus two- ppl could recall 7 items in task
that was unfamiliar
-increase capacity by chunks group similar stimuli stored as a single unit ex
Short-term Memory as “working Memory”
Short-Term Memory not limited to phonemic encoding and decay and not responsible for
Alan Baddley- model of working memory: