Psych Review – Test 2 Chapters 6, 7, 10, 11
Chapter 6- Learning
Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour due to knowledge due to behaviour
Pavlovs UCS,UCS,CS,CR Primary( biological) /secondary-(conditioned) reinforces
Basic Processes in Conditioning
- Acquisition: Forming new responses
- Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses
- Spontaneous Recovery
- Stimulus Generalization
- Stimulus Discrimination
- Higher-Order Conditioning
Operant Conditioning- Form of learning in which responses are governed by consequences
Thorndike’s Law of Effect- response in the Presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effect
association between stimulus and response is strengthened
Skinners Box/ Operant Box
- Operant chamber
- Reinforcement contingencies (rules)
- Cumulative Recorder
Schedules of reinforcement
- Continuous reinforcement (all the time)
- Intermittent/partial reinforcement (sometimes)
- Positive Reinforcement- rewarding stimulus
- Negative Reinforcement- removal of a unpleasant stimulus
- Escape Learning
- Avoidance Learning
- Punishment- leads to weakening in response
Changing Directions in the Study of conditioning - Instinctive Drift (animals biological response interferes with conditioning response
- Observational learning albert Bandura watch a behaviour and mimic, might stay
depending on response.
Chapter 7-Human Memory
Encoding –Forming a memory code (This is how info gets into your memory)
- Attention involves focusing on a narrow range of stimuli or events
Attention usually filters out most potential stimuli only allowing a few to enter into conscious
Stimuli can be screened out during sensory input or later after the brain has processed the
meaning or significance of the input.
Location of the attention filter is flexible rather than fixed ex
High load task ----------- Consumes attention capacity therefore early selection
Low Load Task------------Consumes less attention capacity therefore late selection
Levels of processing
Levels of processing Theory- Deeper levels of processing leads to longer lasting memory
Not all attention is created equally
Craig and Lockhart- incoming info is processed at different levels
- Structural encoding- physical structure, how they were printed
- Phonemic encoding –words sound like
- Semantic encoding- thinking about the object and actions word represents
Enriched Encoding-enhance encoding and retention Elaboration- Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding. – More examples more
Visual imagery- creation of visual images to represent the words being remembered ex juggler
Easier to remember concrete words like juggler than abstract words like truth
According to Paivio- Dual coding theory memory is enhanced by forming sematic and visual
coder to recall
Imagery facilities memory b/c it provides a second type of memory
Self- Referent- Deciding whether info is personally relevant, recall of info tends to be slanted in favour of
material that is personally relevant.
Storage-Maintaining info in memory- storing info on a hard drive
There are three memory stores: Sensory, Short-Term and Long Term memory
Sensory Memory- Preserves info in its original context for a fraction of a second
Short Term Memory-(limited Capacity) –Maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 sec
Can be kept indefinitely by rehearsal by repetitively rehearsing or thing about the information
-Maintenance Rehearsal- maintaining info in consciousness
- Elaborative – increasing prob of remembering in future focusing on meaning of word
Capacity of storage
George Miller “ The magical number Seven plus or minus two- ppl could recall 7 items in task
that was unfamiliar
-increase capacity by chunks –group similar stimuli stored as a single unit ex
Short-term Memory as “working Memory”
Short-Term Memory not limited to phonemic encoding and decay and not responsible for
Alan Baddley- model of working memory: Working memory capacity plays a role in complex cognitive processes
Juggle info feed of distractions ----- + correlation to working memory capacity reading,
intelligence, and reading comprehension.
-unlimited capacity store can hold info for a lengthy period of time. Some believe info is
permanent, forget because you cannot retrieve info
First line of research- done by Wilder Penfield – triggering long lost memories through electrical
stimulation of brain (ESB)
Second line- Flashbulb memories, which are usually vivid and detailed recollections of
How Is Knowledge Represented and organized in Memory
Bousfield showed that subjects were using clustering to remember things -grouping stimuli into
Factual information is categorized into conceptual hierarchies
- Multilevel classifications system based on common properties among items
Schema- Organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from
previous experience with the object or the event. Ex profs office.
- People are more likely to remember things in their schema then are not.
- If things clash with their schema may become memorable
- Impact of schemas hard to predict on memory
Semantic Network- Consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that
link related concepts. -Spread activation within semantic network- think of a work think of a related word/
strength of this activation decreases as it travels outward.
Connectionist network and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP Models
Did not use how computers process info, Connectionist models of memory are taken from how
neural networks appear to be handle info.
-Parallel distribution processing- Simultaneous processing of the same info spread
across networks of neurons
-PDP models – large network of interconnected computing units nodes like neurons. Can
be inactive or sent inhibitory signals or excitatory signals.
Level of activation reflects-weighted balance of excitatory or inhibitory inputs from other units
Specific memories particular pattern of activation
Connectionist networks like semantic network but specific nodes-knowledge or concept while
knowledge in a connectionist-particular pattern of activation
Using Cues to aid Retrieval
Tip of tongue Phenomenon- temp inability to remember something you know accompanied by
the feeling that its just out of your reach
Retrieval cues-stimuli that help gain accesses to memories.
Reinstating the context of an event
-Tulving- encoding specificity principle-memory for information better when encoding
and retrieval environments are similar.
- Contextual Cue- Putting yourself in that environment to remember something Going into another room to get paper when you go into the other room you forget what you
need going back into the original room helps you remember.
State and mood dependent effects- matching a person’s internal state of encoding at the
retrival phase ex. Intoxicated
Reconstructing Memories and Misinformation affect
When retrieving info from long term memory not a video tape but more like a sketchy
Distortions in memory caused by subject’s reconstructing tales to fit their established schema.
Misinformation effects- participants recall an event they witnesses is alters by introducing
misleading post event info.
Stage1 view event
2 exposed to misleading info
3 recall but info altered
Source Monitoring and reality monitoring
Source Monitoring- process of making attributions to the origin of memories
Source monitoring error- info derived from one place is mistakenly thought to be derived from
Cryptomnesia- unintentional plagiarism when people come up with ideas that they think is their
own but really got it from somewhere else.
Reality Monitoring-deciding if memories are based on external or internal sources.
Forgetting when memory lapses
Hermanm Ebbinghaus- forgetting curve.
Forgetting Curve- graphs retention and forgetting, forgetting occurs rapidly after memorization
Problem used meaningless words if he used more meaningful words slope wouldn’t be so steep
Measures of forgetting
Retention –info remembered
Retention interval- length of time between info being presented and measurement of
forgetting Methods used to measure forgetting are recall, recognition and learning
1) Recalling info without any cues remembering a list of 25 words
2) Picking 25 words from 100
3) Memorize info a second time learn how much time and practices can be saved from
learning it before.
Why do we Forget
Pseudo forgetting- never inserted into memory due to lack of attention
Ineffective or inappropriate coding
Decay- memory has faded away o