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Test Notes and short answer questions.docx

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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Psych Notes for Test 3 Chapter 7 - Human Memory -2 kinds of memory: semantic (memory for general info) and episodic (memory for personal events) -3 key processes involved in memory: -encoding involves forming a memory code -storage involves maintaining encoded info in memory over time -retrieval involves recovering info from memory stores -Encoding: -attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events -next in line effect: participants who are about to perform are oblivious on what is going on before because they are preoccupied with what they are going to say and do -attention is often likened to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through -cocktail party phenomenon suggests that attention involves late selection based on the meaning of input -3 levels of processing: structural encoding: relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus -phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like -semantic encoding: emphasizes that meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the object and actions the words present -levels of processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in loner lasting memory codes -semantic encoding can be enhanced through a process called elaboration -elaboration is linking a stimulus to other info at the time of encoding -imagery (creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered) can also be sued to enrich encoding -Paivio’s dual coding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall -self referent encoding involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant -Storage: -sensory memory preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second -this preservation gives you additional time to try to recognize the stimuli -short term memory (STM) is limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds -to keep things longer in your STM you could engage in rehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the info -STM is also limited in the # of items it can hold -Miller noticed that people could only recall only about 7 items in tasks -to increase STM capacity you can combine stimuli into larger units called chunks -chunk is a group of familiar stimuli stores as a single unit -example: remembering phone number like this: NFB – CTV – CBC - IBM -Baddeley’s model of “working memory” consists of 4 componenets: -phonological loop which represents all STM in earlier models -visuospatial sketchpad that permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images -central executive system; controls the use of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed -episodic buffer is a temporary, limited capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate info and that serves as an interface between working memory and long term memory -like STM, a working memory is also limited to capacity and storage duration -long term memory (LTM) is an unlimited capacity store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time -flashbulb memories are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events -clustering is the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups -conceptual hierarchy is a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items -schema is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event -people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not; sometimes the opposite is also true -if info really clashes with a schema, it may attract extra attention -semantic network consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts -semantic networks have proven useful in explaining why thinking about one word can make a closely related word easier to remember -connectionist or parallel distribution (PDP) models assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks -PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks -Retrieval: -tip of the tongue phenomenon – temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by feeling that it’s just out of reach -misfortune effect occurs when participants’ recall of an event they witness is altered by introducing misleading post event information -source monitoring is the process of making attributions about the origins of memories -source monitoring error occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source -reality monitoring refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one’s perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (one’s thoughts and imaginations) -Forgetting: -Ebbinghaus was the first to conduct scientific studies on forgetting -forgetting curve – graph retention and forgetting over time -graph shows that most forgetting occurs very rapidly after learning something -but more research showed that forgetting isn’t as extensive as Ebbinghaus thought -retention refers to the proportion of material retained -retention interval is the length of time between the presentation of materials to be remembered and the measurement of forgetting -methods used to measure forgetting are recall, recognition, and relearning -recall measure of retention requires subjects to reproduce info on their own without any cues -recognition measure of retention requires subjects to select previously learned info from an array of options -relearning measure of retention requires a subject to memorize info a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before -Why we forget? 1) ineffective encoding 2) decay – forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time -research shows that forgetting depends not on the time but on the amount, complexity, and type of info 3) interference – theory proposes that people forget info because of competition from other material -retroactive interference: occurs when new info impairs the retention of previously learned info -proactive interference: occurs when previously learned info interferes with the retention of new info -Retrieval Failure: -encoding specificity principle states that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code -transfer appropriate processing occurs when the initial processing of info is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention -tendency to forget things one doesn’t want to think about is called motivated forgetting -repression refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious (same as motivated forgetting but this is Freud’s term) -long term potential (LTP) is a long lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway -opposite of LTP is long term depression (LTD) -neurogenesis: formation of new neurons -organic amnesia: extensive memory loss due to head injury -2 types of amnesia: -retrograde amnesia: involves loss of memory for events that occurred before th onset of amnesia -anterograde amnesia: involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia -hippocampal region and parahippocampal region are critical for LTM -hippocampal region is one of the first areas to be damaged in Alzheimer’s disease -consolidation is a hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of info into durable memory codes stored in LTM -implicit memory is apparent when retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering -unconscious, must be accessed indirectly, can best be assessed with variations on learning measures of retention -explicit memory involves intentional recollection of previous experiences -conscious, accessed directly, can be assessed with recall or recognition measures -implicit is unaffected by age, amnesia, drugs, length of retention interval, and manipulation or interference -explicit is affected by all these factors -different memory systems: 1) declarative memory system handles fractures info 2) non-declarative or procedural memory system houses memory for action, skills, operations, and conditioned responses -procedural memory system may handle implicit remembering -declarative memory system handles explicit remembering -declarative braches into episodic and semantic -episodic memory system is made up of chronological or temporally dated recollections of personal experiences; memories of things you’ve done, seen, heard -semantic memory contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the indo was learned; info like Dec 25 is Xmas, and dogs have 4 legs -episodic is like an autobiography and semantic is like an encyclopedia -prospective memory involves remembering to perform actions in the future -retrospective memory involves remembering event from the past or previously learned information Chapter 8: Language and Thought: -cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge -language consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rule for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages -phonemes are the smallest speech unit in a language that can be distinguished perceptually -morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning in a language (root words, prefixes, etc) -semantics is the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combination -syntax is a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences -fast mapping is the process by which children map a worked onto an underlying concept after one exposure -overextension occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to -example: child calls everyone round object a ball -underextensions occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to -example: child might call only their favourite doll a doll -telegraphic speech consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other les critical words are omitted “give doll!” -mean length of utterance (MLU) – the average length of youngsters’ spoken statements (measures in morphemes) -over-regularization occurs when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply “I hitted the ball” -metalinquistic awareness – the ability to reflect on the use of language -age is a major factor in learning a second language; the younger the better -second factor is acculturation – the degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture -Behaviourist theories: -Skinner: children learn language by imitation, reinforcement, and other principles of conditioning -nativist theories: -Chomsky: too many sentences to learn through imitation; proposed that children learn by the rules of language -we are biologically equipped with a language acquisition device (LAD) – an innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language -interactionist theories: -biology and experience both make important contributions to the development of language -3 types: 1) cognitive theories: language development is simply an important aspect of cognitive development 2) social communication theories: emphasizes the functional value interpersonal communications and social context in which language evolves 3) emergentist theories: argue that neural circuits supporting language are not prewired but emerge gradually in response to language learning experiences -emergenist models emphasize importance of children’s learning experiences and their indo processing -linguistic relativity – the hypothesis that one’s language determines the nature of one’s thought -Whorf said that different languages lead people to view the world differently -problem solving refers to activate efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable Chapter 10 – Motivation and Emotion: -motivation involves goal directed behaviour -drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension -drive theories cannot explain all motivation -incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour -drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions -incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions -according to drive theories, source of motivation lies within the organism -in incentive theories, source of motivation lies outside the organism -according to expectancy value models, one’s motivation to pursue a course of action will depend on 2 factors: 1) expectancy about one’s chances of attaining the incentive 2) the value of the desired incentive -brain regulates hunger – study in rats: -lesion in lateral hypothalamus (LH) caused loss of interest for food -lesion in ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMH) caused excessive food consumption -today we believe that the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a larger role in modulation of hunger -recent studies suggest that hunger is regulated by neural circuits -fluctuations in blood glucose also play a role in hunger -hormonal regulations of hunger depends mostly on insulin and leptin -classical conditioning and observational learning have a great influence on what people eat and how much they eat -set point theory proposes that the body monitors fat cell levels to keep them and weight fairly stable -settling point theory proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors tat determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieves an equilibrium Sex: -estrogen: hormone in female; androgen: hormone in males -parental investment theory: males are thought to compete with other males for reproductive opportunities and females are assumed to be discriminating sex that is selective in choosing partners -evolutionary theory: men tend to think and initiate sex more than females do -sexual orientation refers to person’s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, or either (heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual) -sexual response can be broken into: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution -excitement phase: physical arousal escalates rapidly -vasocongestion – engorgement of blood vessels; produces an erection -plateau phase: arousal continues to build -orgasm phase: orgasm occurs when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity and is discharged in a series of muscular contractions that pulsate through the pelvis -resolution phase: arousal subsides -men go through a refractory period – a time following orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation -Achievements: -achievement motive is the need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence -pursuit of achievement tends to increase when the probability of success and incentive value of success are high -emotion involves: 1) subjective conscious experience 2) bodily arousal 3) characteristic overt expressions -autonomic nervous system regulates activity of glands, smooth muscle, blood vessels -reponsible for fight or flight response -galvanic skin response (GSR) – increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity -polygraph and lie detectors record autonomic fluctuations -factual feedback hypothesis – facial muscle send signals to the bran the these signals help the brain recognize the emotion that one is experiencing -North American culture encourages socially disengaging emotions (pride, anger) -Japanese encourage socially engaging emotions (friendly feelings, sympathy, guilt) -display rules – norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotion -varies in different cultures -James-Lange theory: -conscious experience of emotion results from one’s perception of autonomic arousal -perception of instinctive arousal leads to the conscious experience of fear -example: you are fearful because your pulse is racing not vise versa -Cannon-Bard Theory: -emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system -Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory: -experience of emotion depends on 2 factors: 1) autonomic arousal 2) cognitive interpretation of that arousal -people infer emotion from arousal and then label the emotions in accordance with their cognitive explanation for the arousal -when we experience visceral arousal, you search the environment for the explanation -Darwin believed that emotions developed because of their adaptive value -evolutionary theories consider emotions to be largely innate reactions to certain stimuli Chapter 9 – Intelligence and Psychological Testing: -psychological test is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour -these tests are used to measure individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitude, interests, and aspects of personality -Mental ability tests: -intelligence tests measure general mental ability -aptitude tests assess specific types of mental abilities -achievement tests gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects -Personality Test: -personality tests measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes -standardization refers to the uniform procedure used in the administration and scoring of a test -test norms provide info about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test -percentile score indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained -reliability refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques) -validity refers to he ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure -content validity refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover -criterion related validity is estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test -construct validity – the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct -Galton was the first to devise intelligence tests; he wanted to show that intelligence is inherited -Binet came up with mental age, which indicated the child displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological age -Terman revised Binet’s scale and produced the Stanford-Binet test: intelligence quotient (IQ) is a child’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 -Wechler published the first adult IQ test known as the Welcher’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) -he made his test less verbal than the last -IQ tests today fall into 2 groups: individual tests and group tests -individual tests are administered by a psychologist on a one on one basis -Standard-Binet and WAIS are all individual tests -individual tests are expensive and time consuming -group tests are inexpensive and more practical -IQ tests measure a blend of potential and knowledge -IQ tests are valid measures of the kind of intelligence that is necessary to do well in academic work -IQ tests do not tap social or practical intelligence and they don’t measure intelligence in a truly general sense -IQ scores are correlated with occupational attainment -these tests are often used in Western cultures -mental retardation or intellectual disability refers to subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18 -generally mental retardation is classified into 4 levels (mild (51-70), moderate (36-50), severe (20-35), profound(below 20) -do genes influence intelligence? Or does the environment? -twin studies show that identical twins (even when raised apart) are more similar in IQ than fraternal twins -adoption studies reveal that people resemble their parents in intelligence even when not raised by them -concept of reaction range argues that hereditary places limits on one’s intellectual potential while the environment determines where one falls within these lines -heritability ratio is an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance -cumulative deprivation hypothesis was tested and investigators did find that environmental deprivation led to erosion in IQ scores -Flynn discovered that over the years IQ scores have been rising; now called the “Flynn effect” -most believe that this effect is due to environmental factors -reaction range refers to genetically determined limits on IQ (or other traits) -Jensen, Herrnstein, and Murray all believed that intelligence was influenced by hereditary factors but at the time this issue was controversial -ethnicity varies with social class, so socioeconomic disadvantage may account for low IQ scores among minority students -Steele suggests that stereotype vulnerability contributes to the culture gap in average IQ -cultural bias on IQ tests may also contribute a little to ethnic differences in IQ, but it does not appear to be a crucial factor -factor analysis – correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables (Spearman’s procedure) -general mental ability was seen as the holy grail in the quest to measure mental ability because many other types of abilities depended on it -Turstone found that he could carve intelligence into 7 factors called primary mental abilities: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory -Guilford then came up with 150 different factors -Cattell and Horn believed that general mental ability should be divided into: 1) fluid intelligence – involves reasoning ability, memory, capacity, and speed of info processing 2) crystallized intelligence involves ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving -modern theorists believe that intelligence should be expanded to encompass greater variety of skills -emotional intelligence consists of the ability to perceive and express emption, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotion SHORT ANSWER TOPICS • Rosenhan study what did he conclude • Psychosomatic vs somatoform disorders - difference • 3 part question that will be on the treatment of psychological disorders behaviour therapy (talking about it), systematic desensitization (anxiety hierarchy –snake) and cognitive type therapies • What is the difference between behaviour therapy and behaviour modification? Cookies (you eat les cookies per day). • Define counter conditioning in regards to systematic desensitization (anxiety hierarchy) • What is the main goal of cognitive type therapies? Short Answer Q&A 1. What was the conclusion to Rosenhan's study of Pseudo patients? -> He concluded that it is clear we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric terms. In a psychiatric ward, conditions are different. Those who work there expect to see abnormal behaviour even when it isn't actually there. 2. What is the difference between Somatoform and Psychosomatic disorders? -> Somatoform disorders fall somewhere between psychological and medical disorders and refer to physical symptoms that have no physiological basis. They are physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors • SomatoForm (mostly psychological) • Fall somewhere between psychological and medical disorders and refer to physical symptoms that have no physiological basis (not to be confused with psychosomatic disorders) • A) Conversion Disorder (hysteria) • Individual will suddenly lose the function of some sort of body part • Something in the person’s life that they cannot deal with it • Chronic fatigue disorder? • B) Hypochondriasis • where minor pains are blown way out of proportion • this disorder is very resistant to therapy Psychosomatic disorders are physical ailments with a genuine organic basis that are caused in part by psychological factors, especially emotional distress. It refers to situations where people have physical symptoms that are triggered by psychological stress (e.g ulcers, asthma, allergies, high blood pressure etc.). Medical intervention is often required (there is a physiological basis but partly cause by psychological reasons) • Psychosomatic Disorders - Refer to physical disorders with a genuine physiological basis that are caused in part by psychological factors/stress • Individuals experienced physical symptoms but physically nothing was wrong with them? different disorder? 3. The different kinds of therapy treatments: 3 part question that will be on the treatment of psychological disorders behaviour therapy (talking about it), systematic desensitization (anxiety hierarchy –snake) and cognitive type therapies • What is the difference between behaviour therapy and behaviour modification? Cookies (you eat les cookies per day). Behaviour Therapy -Involve the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change clients' maladaptive behaviours -Assumed that behaviour is a produce of learning and also assumed that what has been learned can be unlearned -Behavioural therapists attempt to change clients' behaviour by applying the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning Behaviour Modification • Is based on OPERANT conditioning • A) Contingency Management • Involves the presentation and withdrawal of Sr+ contingent upon a given behaviour • Contingency means dependency • There is a behaviour that you want to change. It could be a behaviour that frequency you want to increase • Does not make use of positive punishment • Designed to alter the behaviour of a given individual • 1. Collect Baseline Data (if you want to stop eating cookies, find out how many cookies you actually eat per day, e.g. 20 per day). Record the time of day, and what were you doing, what triggered it. If you can find the trigger, you can focus on that as a problem area) • 2. Set a realistic goal (Don’t set your goals to high, e.g. I’m going to stop eating all cookies right no
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