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PSYC 1010
Doug Mc Cann

____ 1) All of the following were cited in the textbook as factors which promote relaxation except for A. developing a passive attitude B. drinking a small amount of alcohol C. being in a comfortable position D. focusing on a constant stimulus ____ 2) The Flashback football team had been down by 35 points at half-time, but they had made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock they made a touchdown that narrowed the other team's lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the dying seconds. As the team lines up for the final play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing A. frustration B. conflict C. burnout D. pressure ____ 3) The name Hans Selye gave to the body's response to stress is A. the fight-or-flight response B. the general adaptation syndrome C. catharsis D. defensive coping ____ 4) A group that one belongs to and identifies with is known as a(n) A. stereotype B. social schema C. outgroup D. ingroup ____ 5) Which of the following has been shown to increase the risk of such chronic diseases as lung cancer, emphysema, and stroke? A. smoking B. poor nutrition C. lack of exercise D. obesity ____ 6) Evidence from numerous studies of the bystander effect suggests that A. it is a widespread phenomenon B. it is limited to contrived laboratory situations C. it occurs only in urban ghetto areas D. there is much truth to the old saying that "there is safety in numbers" ____ 7) Which of the following is not typically a reason for noncompliance with medical advice? A. having a negative attitude for physicians B. failing to understand advice or instructions C. the degree of difficulty associated with following advice or instructions D. the cost of the medical treatment program ____ 8) Marriages arranged by families and other go-betweens remain common in cultures high in A. individualism B. collectivism C. self-perception D. self-monitoring ____ 9) Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on obedience to authority? A. Solomon Asch B. Daryl Bem C. Leon Festinger D. Stanley Milgram ____ 10) The Featured Study by Cohen and his colleagues showed that high-stress subjects had a higher incidence of colds than low-stress subjects. This finding indicates that illness and levels of stress are A. uncorrelated B. negatively correlated C. positively correlated D. multifactorial variables ____ 11) When Jerry thought he was the only person who was assigned the job of contacting alumni for a 15-year reunion, he spent several hours on the phone each evening trying to reach members of his graduating class. When he learned that eight other people were also working on contacting the alumni he spent only 30 minutes each night making phone calls. The process that would best explain the decrease in Jerry's effort when he learned that he was working as part of a larger group, is A. social interference B. social loafing C. the bystander effect D. social dissonance ____ 12) Actors and observers tend to give different explanations for the same instance of behavior because A. only actors themselves can accurately explain their own behavior B. only outside observers can accurately explain actors' behavior C. observers tend to possess more knowledge than the actors D. situational pressures may not be readily apparent to an observer ____ 13) The week of final exams subjects most students to what kind of stress? A. pressure B. change C. frustration D. conflict ____ 14) A man who believes that "women just don't make good leaders" may dwell on his female supervisor's mistakes and quickly forget about her achievements. This scenario illustrates which of the following concepts? A. defensive attribution B. the illusory correlation effect C. the fundamental attribution error D. the bystander effect ____ 15) Bruce performed very well on the examination, which he attributed to native ability and hard work. Which bias does this illustrate? A. the fundamental attribution error B. the actor-observer bias C. the self-serving bias D. illusory correlation ____ 16) Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people are referred to as A. attributions B. illusory correlations C. covariation inferences D. social schemas ____ 17) Individualism is to collectivism as __________ is to __________. A. external; internal B. personal; group C. communism; capitalism D. All of these complete the analogy correctly. ____ 18) The final stage of Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome during which the organism's resources for fighting stress may be depleted is called A. alarm B. fatigue C. resistance D. exhaustion ____ 19) The two major pathways via which the brain may signal the endocrine system are through the A. parasympathetic and sympathetic systems B. circulatory and muscular systems C. pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system D. autonomic and skeletal nervous systems ____ 20) A person who is hard-driving, ambitious, competitive, and at risk for having a heart attack is said to have __________ personality. A. a Type B B. an internal C. an external D. a Type A ____ 21) According to Baumeister, the pressure to perform can elevate self-consciousness, which then disrupts our attention by A. diverting attention from the demands of the task B. causing us to perform too automatically C. creating an approach-avoidance conflict D. activating our autonomic nervous system ____ 22) Frustration refers to A. being blocked in the pursuit of a desired goal B. the most frequent emotional response to aggression C. being caught between two incompatible motives D. being expected to live up to high standards of performance ____ 23) Elliot Aronson views inconsistency as the key to dissonance, but maintains that it is inconsistency between one's __________ and one's __________ that motivates dissonance. A. emotions; behavior B. self-concept; behavior C. behavior; attributions D. self-concept; unconscious urges ____ 24) Which of the following statements regarding the effectiveness of two-sided arguments is accurate? A. Presenting a two-sided argument often confuses the receiver and decreases a source's persuasiveness. B. Two-sided arguments should be avoided, since the receiver shouldn't be informed that there is an alternative to the source's view. C. Overall, two-sided arguments tend to be more effective than one-sided arguments. D. Two-sided arguments tend to be effective with women, but not with men. ____ 25) Valerie is doing homework for her statistics class. When she checks the answer she has just calculated for the problem she has been working on, she finds it is incorrect. She is frustrated, and tells her roommate: "I don't know why I'm even trying, I'll never catch on in this course. I should just give up now." According to Albert Ellis, Valerie's statements reflect A. defensive coping B. mental disengagement C. catastrophic thinking D. reality-based coping ____ 26) Recent research evidence from studies which have investigated the link between depression and heart disease suggests that A. the stress of living with heart disease may cause the onset of depression B. depression and heart disease are not correlated with each other C. the emotional dysfunction of depression may cause heart disease D. depression and heart disease are both caused by the negative effects of smoking ____ 27) According to Hazan and Shaver's model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are most likely to have satisfying, interdependent, and long-lasting relationships? A. secure B. insecure C. avoidant D. anxious-ambivalent ____ 28) Behavioral vacillation would be most apt to go with which type of conflict? A. approach-avoidance B. approach-approach C. avoidance-avoidance D. frustration ____ 29) In making a causal attribution, we first tend to decide if an event was due to __________ causes. A. subjective or objective B. usual or unusual C. positive or negative D. internal or external ____ 30) Groupthink is more likely when the group A. does not have a designated leader B. must justify their decision to other groups in the same organization C. is under pressure to make a major decision D. experiences any of these things 6mw3 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: B REF: 562 Correct = 76% 2) ANS: D REF: 534 3) ANS: B REF: 537 Correct = 38% 4) ANS: D REF: 659 Correct = 87% 5) ANS: A REF: 554 Correct = 99% 6) ANS: A REF: 684 7) ANS: D REF: 558 Correct = 61% 8) ANS: B REF: 668 9) ANS: D REF: 680 10) ANS: C REF: 550 Correct = 91% 11) ANS: B REF: 686 12) ANS: D REF: 662 13) ANS: A REF: 534 14) ANS: B REF: 691 15) ANS: C REF: 663 16) ANS: D REF: 657 17) ANS: B REF: 664 Correct = 88% 18) ANS: D REF: 538 Correct = 81% 19) ANS: C REF: 538 20) ANS: D REF: 547 Correct = 80% 21) ANS: A REF: 543 Correct = 81% 22) ANS: A REF: 531 Correct = 88% 23) ANS: B REF: 677 24) ANS: C REF: 673 25) ANS: C REF: 561 26) ANS: C REF: 548 27) ANS: A REF: 668 28) ANS: A REF: 532 29) ANS: D REF: 660 30) ANS: C REF: 688 Correct = 76% ____ 1) Travis was piloting a small private jet. He was making his final approach through heavy fog, and when he finally broke through the fog cover at 150 feet he realized that the runway was 20 yards to his left. For an instant he experienced a sensation of total panic, but he quickly took action. With his heart still pounding he gave the plane full throttle in an attempt to clear the rapidly approaching trees. According to Selye's general adaptation syndrome, as Travis took action he was experiencing A. physiological exhaustion B. a resistance reaction C. an alarm reaction D. autonomic rebound ____ 2) In his studies on conformity, Asch found that if a group of persons espouses an opinion contradictory to one's own opinion, one is most likely to A. voice the group's opinion B. echo the opinion of the nearest group member C. voice one's own opinion, even though it's contradictory D. show mild symptoms of learned helplessness ____ 3) Which of the following statements regarding social loafing is not accurate? A. Social loafing is an inevitable outcome of group projects. B. As group size increases, social loafing becomes more likely. C. Recent evidence indicates that fatigue tends to increase social loafing. D. The social-loafing effect has been replicated in a number of studies using a variety of tasks. ____ 4) Which of the following is not a variable people use to stereotype other people? A. ethnicity B. gender C. occupation D. Any of these variables may be used. ____ 5) Laboratory experiments with cardiology patients have shown that brief period of mental stress A. can trigger acute symptoms of heart disease, such as myocardial ischemia B. have little, or no, impact on overall cardiac function C. can intensify chromic symptoms of heart disease, such as arteriosclerosis D. can trigger emotional responses such as depression and feelings of despair ____ 6) Constructive coping includes all of the following except A. confronting a problem directly B. inhibiting emotional reactions to stress C. reliance on the use of defense mechanisms D. making reasonably realistic appraisals of your coping resources ____ 7) Which of the following statements regarding stereotypes is accurate? A. Stereotypes are inevitably negative and unflattering. B. Ethnic and racial groups are the only targets of widespread prejudice. C. We see members of our own ingroup as more alike than the members of outgroups. D. Stereotypes are so pervasive that they are often activated automatically. ____ 8) The bystander effect is A. greater the more people there are in the group B. less the more people there are in the group C. unaffected by the size of the group D. greatest when the observer is the only one present ____ 9) In Weiten's studies, __________ turned out to be more strongly related to measures of mental health than scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale were. A. frustration B. conflict C. pressure D. change ____ 10) Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as A. hedonism B. dispositional attributional bias C. egocentrism D. individualism ____ 11) You've been invited to dinner at a nice restaurant on the final night of a TV mini-series you've been watching and thus find yourself confronted with A. pressure B. frustration C. an approach-avoidance conflict D. an approach-approach conflict ____ 12) Barbara's car has been running poorly lately. Whose advice is Barbara most likely to follow in order to make her car run better? A. her physician B. her uncle C. her mechanic D. her physics instructor ____ 13) Your unique ideas about how a college class should be run, what a typical straight "A" student is like, and how a typical professor will act are all examples of A. prejudices B. attitudes C. attributions D. social schemas ____ 14) Most of Conrad's friends consider him to be highly neurotic. It is likely that, compared to his friends, Conrad is A. less likely to perceive events as stressful B. more likely to "choke" under pressure C. less likely to use defensive coping strategies D. more likely to perceive events as stressful ____ 15) Noncompliance with medical advice occurs approximately A. 5 to 10 percent of the time B. 30 to 60 percent of the time C. 75 percent of the time D. 80 to 90 percent of the time ____ 16) The __________ controls the fight-or-flight response as a physiological reaction to a threat. A. autonomic nervous system B. pyramidal system C. central nervous system D. thalamus ____ 17) Love as the basis for marriage is A. unique to the United States B. a product of Asian collectivism C. virtually universal across all cultures D. an 18th-century invention of Western culture ____ 18) The Featured Study by Cohen and his colleagues showed that A. psychological stress can increase people's susceptibility to infectious disease B. when all possible confounding variables are controlled for, there is no longer any association between stress and vulnerability to infection C. the stress-illness association found in other studies is probably the result of an increased frequency of health-impairing habits in stressed subjects D. psychological stress only increases susceptibility to infectious disease in people with Type A personalities ____ 19) If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are evidencing the A. false consensus effect B. situational attributional tendency C. self-serving bias D. fundamental attribution error ____ 20) The principle cause of coronary heart disease is A. atherosclerosis B. Alzheimer's disease C. diabetes D. burnout ____ 21) Individual differences in cardiovascular reactivity A. typically do not emerge until adulthood B. are acquired through classical conditioning C. have not been linked to the occurrence of stress-related illnesses D. probably contribute to susceptibility to heart disease ____ 22) Catastrophic thinking is characterized as involving A. personality disordered type of thinking B. thinking associated with neuroticism C. exaggeration of the magnitude of one's problems D. focusing on major stressors and ignoring the impact of minor frustrations ____ 23) According to Hazan and Shaver, romantic love is an attachment process, and people's intimate relationships in adulthood follow the same form as their attachments A. in infancy B. to their preschool playmates C. to their adolescent peers D. to their same-gender parent ____ 24) When the adrenal medulla is stimulated A. large amounts of catecholamines are released into the bloodstream B. the hormone ACTH is secreted C. corticosteroids are absorbed by the adrenal glands D. the parasympathetic nervous system is activated ____ 25) Herbert Benson devised a simple procedure, called the relaxation response, that can have beneficial health effects. To experience the full benefits, the procedure should be practiced A. on a daily basis B. whenever a person has to deal with a major stressor C. for a minimum of 50 minutes a day, three days per week D. only when traditional medical treatments produce no improvement ____ 26) Scott spent a great deal of time and money on becoming a member of a certain club, yet later discovered that the members of the club were boring. According to dissonance theory, Scott would most likely A. continue to extol the virtues of the club to his friends B. now "bad mouth" the club to his friends C. engage in denial and disengagement as part of his defensive attribution D. try to modify the behavior of the current club members ____ 27) Group cohesiveness refers to the A. degree to which group members agree about an issue B. strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself C. extent of polarization that occurs after group discussion D. tendency of groups to make more cautious decisions than individuals ____ 28) An actor's behavior being the same over time and across situations defines the covariation information referred to as A. consistency B. convergence C. consensus D. criterial ____ 29) The most likely initial consequence of an approach-avoidance conflict is A. approach B. vacillation C. avoidance D. withdrawal ____ 30) Which of the following could be an example of the fundamental attribution error? A. Ralph described himself as a failure. B. Ralph thought that the reason he failed was that he was sick that day. C. Jayne said Ralph failed because the test was unfair. D. Sue explained Ralph's failure in terms of his incompetence and laziness. 6mw11 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: B REF: 538 2) ANS: A REF: 680 3) ANS: A REF: 686 4) ANS: D REF: 658 5) ANS: A REF: 548 6) ANS: C REF: 542 Correct = 59% 7) ANS: D REF: 690 8) ANS: A REF: 684 Correct = 79% 9) ANS: C REF: 534 10) ANS: D REF: 664 Correct = 54% 11) ANS: D REF: 532 12) ANS: C REF: 673 Correct = 84% 13) ANS: D REF: 657 Correct = 61% 14) ANS: D REF: 531 15) ANS: B REF: 558 Correct = 73% 16) ANS: A REF: 537 Correct = 98% 17) ANS: D REF: 668 18) ANS: A REF: 550 19) ANS: D REF: 662 Correct = 49% 20) ANS: A REF: 546 Correct = 79% 21) ANS: D REF: 553 22) ANS: C REF: 561 23) ANS: A REF: 667 24) ANS: A REF: 538 Correct = 80% 25) ANS: A REF: 562 Correct = 81% 26) ANS: A REF: 676 27) ANS: B REF: 687 28) ANS: A REF: 660 Correct = 41% 29) ANS: B REF: 532 Correct = 26% 30) ANS: D REF: 661 ____ 1) Which of the following statements regarding the research on dissonance theory is most accurate? A. Research has generally supported dissonance theory. B. Research has generally not supported dissonance theory. C. Research has supported dissonance theory, but only with regard to social behavior. D. Research on dissonance theory has been favorable, but only when the subjects have been young children. ____ 2) Holmes and Rahe reasoned that major sources of stress for people come from A. failures B. life events involving loss C. changes in one'
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