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MC Test 3 full.doc

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York University
PSYC 1010
Doug Mc Cann

3mw3 ____ 1) The gradual conversion of information into durable long-term memory codes is called A. long-term potentiation B. postsynaptic conversion C. elaboration D. consolidation ____ 2) The person who has the ability to see all aspects of a problem and make good decisions is demonstrating the __________ type of intelligence. A. verbal B. practical C. social D. academic ____ 3) A norm refers to A. a test's reliability B. a test's validity C. a test's distribution of scores D. all of these things ____ 4) Penfield's studies suggest that long-lost memories can be elicited through electrical stimulation of the brain. This suggests the possibility that forgetting may be a matter of A. retrieval failure B. displacement C. gradual decay D. unconscious wishes to forget ____ 5) The conjunction fallacy is a tendency to A. ignore information about base rates when estimating the probabilities of certain combinations of outcomes B. overestimate the odds of a chance event if that event hasn't occurred recently C. draw general conclusions based on a few isolated cases D. believe that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone ____ 6) When the word "oat" is changed to the word "boat," the number of A. phonemes and morphemes are both increased B. phonemes stays the same, but the number of morphemes is increased C. phonemes increases, but the number of morphemes stays the same D. phonemes decreases, but the number of morphemes increases ____ 7) The child's first words are generally spoken at about what age? A. 3 to 5 months B. 6 to 8 months C. 10 to 13 months D. 18 to 21 months ____ 8) The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is lower than that between identical twins reared together suggests that A. environmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development B. environmental factors have no impact on intellectual development C. genetic factors have no impact on intellectual development D. identical twins often do not have the same genotype ____ 9) The entrance exam that Jaclyn is taking for graduate school has a number of questions such as: glove is to hand as sock is to __________. Questions of this type are considered to be A. problems of arrangement B. problems of transformation C. problems of inducing structure D. ill-defined problems ____ 10) The fact that some people have an organized sequence of memories for driving their car to work implies the existence of A. prototypes B. analogies C. scripts D. chained connotations ____ 11) According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, a mnemonic device such as learning "Every good boy does fine" in order to remember which notes are on the lines of the treble clef in musical notation represents A. a metacomponent B. a knowledge-acquisition component C. a performance component D. an intelligence component ____ 12) Which of the following statements is the most debatable? A. Intelligence is at least somewhat genetic in origin. B. Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the cause of ethnic differences in intelligence. C. The average IQ in the lowest social classes is about 30 to 30 points lower than the average IQ in the highest social classes. D. The average IQ for some minority groups in the United States is about 3 to 15 points lower than the average for whites. ____ 13) Walter is 10 years old and has a mental age of 8, based on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Alfred is 12 and has a mental age of 10, based on the Stanford- Binet Intelligence Scale. Using the intelligence quotient scoring system suggested by William Stern A. Walter would be considered "more" intelligent than Alfred B. Alfred would be considered "more" intelligent than Walter C. both boys would be considered equally intelligent D. the scores could not be meaningfully compared because the boys are not the same age ____ 14) If you wanted to be able to predict how successful you would be at being an engineer, you would take a test that measured your potential for this profession. It is hoped that the test would be high in A. criterion-related validity B. internal validity C. construction validity D. hypothetical validity ____ 15) Jacob is thinking of buying a $1 lottery ticket. In Lottery A his odds of winning are 1 out of a 1000, and he may win $500. In Lottery B his odds of winning are 1 out of 5000, but he may win $5000. Based on expected value theory, Jacob should A. buy either ticket because both lotteries have the same expected value B. buy a ticket from Lottery B because it has a higher expected value C. buy a ticket from Lottery A because it has a higher expected value D. not buy either ticket because both lotteries have very low odds of winning ____ 16) Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of A. interference effects B. lack of attention C. hippocampal damage D. insufficient retrieval cues ____ 17) An algorithm is A. the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by a problem solver B. a guiding principle or "rule of thumb" used in problem solving C. a methodical procedure for trying all possible solutions to a problem D. equivalent to a heuristic ____ 18) Spearman's "g" infers that A. most kinds of intelligence are highly related B. most kinds of intelligence are not highly related C. intelligence is highly correlated with personality characteristics D. intelligence is primarily genetic in origin ____ 19) The ability of people to "juggle" information in working memory in order to reason and make decisions is the __________ component of working memory. A. executive control system B. rehearsal loop C. visual imagery D. schematic ____ 20) __________ is a metabolic disorder (due to an inherited enzyme deficiency) that can lead to retardation if it is not caught and treated in infancy. A. Hydrocephaly B. Phenylketonuria C. Down syndrome D. Parkinson's disease ____ 21) Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"? A. regression B. repression C. sublimation D. rationalization ____ 22) The study of source monitoring - the process of making attributions about the origins of memories - is most closely associated with which of the following researchers? A. Brenda Milner B. Endel Tulving C. Marcia Johnson D. Elizabeth Loftus ____ 23) The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model proposes that memory has A. sensory, short-term, medium-term, and long-term stores B. short-, medium-, and long-term stores C. four different memory stores D. sensory, short-term, and long-term stores ____ 24) Dave is reminiscing about the first car he owned in high school and how he felt the first time he drove it through town. This is an example of __________ memory. A. procedural B. declarative C. episodic D. semantic ____ 25) Mrs. Bondle seldom corrects her 4-year-old's grammatical errors, such as "Her drinked my milk." However, she is careful to correct factual errors, such as "Tiger ate his milk." Assuming Mrs. Bondle's child develops normal language skills, her pattern of feedback would be inconsistent with A. the behavioral view of language development B. the nativist view of language development C. all major theories of language development D. the transformational theory of language development ____ 26) In analyzing factors in intelligence, Charles Spearman emphasized a general intelligence factor known as A. crystallized intelligence B. s C. g D. the primary mental ability ____ 27) A child who says, "I sawed a cat in the yard," is making which of the following errors? A. overextension B. underextension C. overregularization D. underregularization ____ 28) If the three memory stores were ordered in terms of levels of processing, which of the following sequences would be the correct order for progressively deeper processing? A. long-term memory, short-term memory, sensory memory B. short-term memory, sensory memory, long-term memory C. sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory D. sensory memory, long-term memory, short-term memory ____ 29) In cultures that depend on hunting and gathering for subsistence, a(n) __________ style is more adaptive. A. field dependent B. risk-averse C. field independent D. algorithmic ____ 30) Most persons mistakenly believe that more people die from tornadoes than from asthma. This is because they mistakenly apply A. a means/end analysis B. a compensatory decision model C. an availability heuristic D. a representativeness heuristic 3mw3A Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: D REF: 293 Correct = 51% 2) ANS: B REF: 357 3) ANS: C REF: 348 Correct = 66% 4) ANS: A REF: 274 Correct = 77% 5) ANS: D REF: 331 6) ANS: C REF: 310 7) ANS: C REF: 311 Correct = 65% 8) ANS: A REF: 363 9) ANS: C REF: 319 10) ANS: C REF: 277 Correct = 88% 11) ANS: B REF: 375 Correct = 73% 12) ANS: B REF: 367 13) ANS: B REF: 352 14) ANS: A REF: 349 15) ANS: B REF: 330 16) ANS: B REF: 285 Correct = 45% 17) ANS: C REF: 322 Correct = 49% 18) ANS: A REF: 372 19) ANS: A REF: 274 Correct = 44% 20) ANS: B REF: 359 21) ANS: B REF: 287 Correct = 91% 22) ANS: C REF: 281 23) ANS: D REF: 270 Correct = 86% 24) ANS: C REF: 296 Correct = 83% 25) ANS: A REF: 316 26) ANS: C REF: 372 Correct = 84% 27) ANS: C REF: 312 28) ANS: C 29) ANS: C REF: 327 30) ANS: C REF: 330 3mw11 ____ 1) A student's organized set of expectations about how to study for and take an exam is an example of a A. script B. cluster C. conceptual hierarchy D. semantic network ____ 2) Series-completion problems are examples of which of Greeno's (1978) categories? A. inducing structure B. arrangement C. transformation D. recategorization ____ 3) Which of the following heuristics would you probably employ if assigned the task of carrying out a school election? A. work backwards B. representativeness C. search for analogies D. form subgoals ____ 4) Malcolm has been watching a roulette-type game at a local charity bazaar. The game has only ten numbers on the wheel, and every number except 8 has come up as a winner during the last 15 minutes. Malcolm decides to bet $10 on number 8, because it has to come up eventually. In this case, Malcolm is showing evidence of A. the availability heuristic B. the gambler's fallacy C. the conjunction fallacy D. the base rate fallacy ____ 5) According to the reaction range model A. children with average IQ scores will not have very wide reaction ranges B. children with average IQ scores are being raised in average-quality environments C. children raised in high-quality environments should score near the top of their reaction range D. children raised in high-quality environments will have higher IQ scores than children raised in poor-quality environments ____ 6) A child who uses "wented" as the past tense of the verb "to go" A. is using a metalinguistic transformation B. is probably still at the stage of using semantic slanting C. is using a general rule in an irregular case where it does not apply D. is using motherese to express the past tense ____ 7) In their efforts to understand memory storage, theorists have historically related it to A. the change of seasons B. the water in a stream C. the technologies of their age D. a library of documents ____ 8) Correlations between IQ scores and school grades can best be characterized as A. nonsignificant B. moderately negative C. moderately positive D. positive, and nearly perfect ____ 9) Chunking is the A. elaboration of information in short-term memory for storage into long- term memory B. process of passing information from sensory memory to short-term memory C. actual storage process of information in long-term memory D. method used to increase the amount of information one can hold in short-term memory ____ 10) You flip a fair coin ten times. Each time it comes up heads you get 10 cents. Each time it comes up tails you lose 5 cents. What is your expected value for each flip of the coin? A. +10 cents B. +5 cents C. -5 cents D. -10 cents ____ 11) Spearman argued that intelligence A. is a series of unrelated factors B. is made up of a "core factor" common to all intellectual abilities C. can change from time to time D. is only seen in certain "school-type" problems ____ 12) Jerome is 8 years old and has been determined to have a mental age of 10. What is Jerome's IQ? A. 80 B. 100 C. 110 D. 125 ____ 13) General knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in __________ memory. A. episodic B. semantic C. implicit D. procedural ____ 14) Which of the following areas of the brain is associated with the severe memory impairment that occurs in Alzheimer's disease? A. limbic system B. hippocampal region C. sympathetic nervous system D. Broca's area ____ 15) Which subtheory of intelligence, as proposed by Sternberg, is associated with dealing effectively with novelty and how one performs familiar tasks automatically and effortlessly? A. the contextual subtheory B. the operational subtheory C. the experiential subtheory D. the generative subtheory ____ 16) If it takes you 10 minutes to memorize a list the first time and only 2 minutes to memorize it a week later, then your "savings score" is __________ percent. A. 20 B. 50 C. 80 D. 90 ____ 17) Steele's theory of stereotype vulnerability is an attempt to explain why A. Asian-Americans score higher than average on IQ tests B. African-Americans score lower than average on IQ tests C. cultural bias must necessarily be inherent in all intelligence tests D. general intelligence in a population declines over time ____ 18) Professor Ridley is known for giving fair exams that include only test items for which the student should have been prepared. Professor Ridley's exams can be said to be high in A. criterion-related validity B. content validity C. predictive validity D. standardized validity ____ 19) "Rearing together" gives higher correlations in IQ than "rearing apart" for which groups? A. fraternal twins only B. identical twins only C. siblings only D. fraternal twins, identical twins, and non-twin siblings ____ 20) Mia was trying to figure out how to fit the box that contained her new computer into the trunk of her car. She mentally manipulated the position of the box, trying to figure out a way to make it fit. Based on Baddely's model of working memory, Mia was utilizing A. the visuospatial sketchpad to mentally manipulate the box's position B. the rehearsal loop while she worked repeatedly on the problem C. the executive control system to juggle all the information she needed to consider D. her prospective memory to remember the actions she would need to perform ____ 21) The smallest unit of meaning in a language is A. the phoneme B. the word C. the phrase D. the morpheme ____ 22) You are at a daycare center and you hear three 12-month-old babies babbling; each baby from a different racial/ethnic background (Asian, Hispanic, and Caucasian). The babbling of each of these infants A. will sound very similar, because maturation is the major determinant of language acquisition during the first year B. will consist mainly of vowel sounds, because consonant sounds don't usually emerge until 14 months of age C. will consist mainly of two-word phrases (telegraphic speech) D. will sound very different, with each child's babbles sounding quite similar to the parents' native language ____ 23) The concept of motivated forgetting is based largely on the work of which of the following early psychologists? A. Hermann Ebbinghaus B. Sigmund Freud C. John Watson D. Wilhelm Wundt ____ 24) If a psychological test is to tell you how you score relative to other people, the following must be developed A. test norms B. test scores C. test scales D. test levels ____ 25) The educational practices in modern Western societies seem to nourish A. field independence B. risk-averse behaviors C. field dependence D. algorithmic problem-solving ____ 26) The fact that overregularizations occur in many different languages as children master language skills provides evidence against A. the interactionist theory of language development B. the behavioral theory of language development C. the nativist theory of language development D. the linguistic relativity theory of language development ____ 27) The form of mental retardation that is usually caused by the presence of an extra chromosome is A. phenylketonuria B. hydrocephaly C. organic D. Down syndrome ____ 28) Attempting possible solutions to a problem sequentially, then discarding the ones that don't work until you find one that does, is called the __________ method of problem solving. A. working backward B. heuristic C. algorithmic D. trial-and-error ____ 29) The process of making attributions about the origins of memories is referred to as A. reality monitoring B. source monitoring C. buffering D. a contraindication ____ 30) Overconfidence in recalling information is most likely to be fueled by which of the following errors in thinking? A. source-monitoring errors B. reality-monitoring errors C. the fundamental attribution error D. the failure to seek disconfirming evidence 3mw11A 1) ANS: A REF: 277 2) ANS: A REF: 319 3) ANS: D REF: 322 4) ANS: B REF: 331 5) ANS: C REF: 366 6) ANS: C REF: 312 7) ANS: C REF: 270 8) ANS: C REF: 356 9) ANS: D REF: 272 10) ANS: B REF: 330 Correct = 87% 11) ANS: B REF: 372 Correct = 74% 12) ANS: D REF: 352 Correct = 53% 13) ANS: B REF: 296 Correct = 69% 14) ANS: B REF: 293 15) ANS: C REF: 375 Correct = 48% 16) ANS: C REF: 284 17) ANS: B REF: 369 18) ANS: B REF: 349 Correct = 61% 19) ANS: D REF: 363 20) ANS: A REF: 274 21) ANS: D REF: 309 Correct = 71% 22) ANS: D REF: 310 23) ANS: B REF: 286 Correct = 60% 24) ANS: A REF: 348 Correct = 80% 25) ANS: A REF: 327 Correct = 64% 26) ANS: B REF: 316 27) ANS: D REF: 359 28) ANS: D REF: 322 Correct = 93% 29) ANS: B REF: 281 30) ANS: D REF: 303 3tr1 ____ 1) Which of the following researchers sparked a heated debate by arguing that cultural differences in IQ are largely due to heredity? A. Alfred Binet B. Arthur Jensen C. Robert Sternberg D. David Wechsler ____ 2) Nodes representing concepts joined
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