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Midterm

MC Test 2 full.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Doug Mc Cann

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____ 1) Breland and Breland's work with "miserly raccoons" demonstrated A. how principles of reinforcement (derived from studies of rats and pigeons) easily generalize to raccoons B. differences in appropriate rewards for different species C. that there are biologically imposed limits to the generality of conditioning principles D. that raccoons are less conditionable, and therefore less intelligent, than rats and pigeons ____ 2) Simon cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, cringing in the waiting room is A. an unconditioned response B. a conditioned stimulus C. a conditioned response D. an unconditioned stimulus ____ 3) Which of the following drugs has the greatest number (and most diverse) negative effects on physical health? A. LSD B. heroin C. alcohol D. cocaine ____ 4) The most vivid dreams generally occur A. during REM sleep B. during NREM sleep C. during the early hours of sleep D. when alpha brain waves are present ____ 5) Continuous reinforcement occurs when A. reinforcement is delivered continually, regardless of whether or not a response is made B. it is not known in advance what responses will be reinforced C. every behavior engaged in by the subject is reinforced D. every occurrence of the designated response is reinforced ____ 6) The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the A. phi phenomenon B. constancy principle C. common-fate principle D. motion parallax effect ____ 7) Petra looked directly into a very bright light and damaged her retina. The opthamologist has told her that she has sustained massive damage to her cones, but for the most part her rods have not been affected. One change that you could predict for Petra's vision is that she will now have A. poor vision in low illumination B. poor peripheral vision C. no color vision D. more accurate depth perception ____ 8) An electroencephalograph is a device that measures A. glucose metabolism in the brain B. muscle tension in the body C. respiration rates as an index of arousal D. electrical activity of the brain ____ 9) Ken used to drool at the smell of peanut butter cookies as they baked, and he couldn't wait to sink his teeth into that first cookie. However, Ken's new roommate makes terrible peanut butter cookies and the smell of them baking is no longer associated with a wonderful taste experience. Consequently, Ken finds that the smell of the cookies no longer makes him drool in anticipation. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as A. spontaneous recovery B. second-order conditioning C. extinction D. avoidance ____ 10) According to optimal foraging theory, predatory animals will usually A. pursue small prey that requires little effort to catch B. pursue large prey that requires greater effort to catch C. pursue small prey only if foraging in large groups D. maximize nutritional value relative to the energy they expend in hunting ____ 11) Nathan is watching the cumulative recorder that is connected to a box where a rat is pressing a lever to receive food reinforcement. The slope of the line is becoming flatter and flatter over time. Based on this output, Nathan can conclude that the rat's response rate A. is increasing over time B. will soon show spontaneous recovery C. is decreasing over time D. is caused by inadequate stimulus generalization ____ 12) Which of the following statements about dreams is most accurate? A. Only about 75 percent of all people dream. B. The reason we do not remember our dreams is that the content of the dream is repressed. C. People cannot remember their dreams because of too much time passing between when they dreamed and when they try to recall the dream. D. Most dreams people can remember deal with sexually oriented topics. ____ 13) When Antonio was sick as a child his mother would always make him vanilla pudding; to Antonio it seemed like the vanilla pudding made him feel better. Even now, he still gets a good feeling when he starts to prepare some vanilla pudding, but not when he starts to make any other type of pudding. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of A. stimulus generalization B. instinctive drift C. stimulus discrimination D. negative avoidance ____ 14) Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus, is A. vision B. hearing C. gustation D. olfaction ____ 15) If selectively deprived of REM sleep, a person will experience __________ later. A. hypochondriasis B. emotionality C. NREM D. REM rebound ____ 16) Interposition refers to A. the relationship between bipolar and ganglion cells B. the processing of auditory information at the cochlear level C. an environmental depth cue in which closer objects overlap objects farther away D. the lens's ability to change shape and focus light directly on the retina ____ 17) One hypothesis regarding the cause of crib death in babies is that they stop breathing during sleep, a sleep disorder known as A. narcolepsy B. sleep apnea C. night terror D. hypersomnia ____ 18) Which of the following is not one of the four basic tastes? A. salty B. citrus C. sweet D. bitter ____ 19) "Manny got out of bed and began doing calisthenics during REM sleep, probably because he was dreaming about boot camp." What is wrong with this statement? A. Sleep is a relaxed condition of the body and, as such, precludes physical activity. B. Research shows that no dreaming takes place in REM sleep. C. Research shows that we are virtually paralyzed in REM sleep. D. Manny was never in boot camp so he is not likely to be dreaming about it. ____ 20) Alcohol appears to contribute to about __________ percent of student rapes on college campuses. A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 90 ____ 21) The kinesthetic system relates to A. maintaining the relative position of body parts B. the location of the body in space C. the sense of forward acceleration D. sensing body movement, as in a car ____ 22) Clifford was in an accident and he has lost all the hearing in his right ear. The deafness in this ear will mostly affect Clifford's ability to A. localize sounds accurately B. separate speech sounds from background noise C. detect high frequency sounds D. detect high amplitude sounds ____ 23) If you project a red, a green, and a blue light into space, the point at which the three lights cross will lead to the perception of A. black light B. ultraviolet light C. white light D. infrared light ____ 24) Evelyn turned the thermostat up from 68 degrees to 70 degrees; however, she doesn't think it feels any warmer and she wants to turn it up even higher. Her roommate thinks that it is now too hot, and she wants to turn the thermostat back down. Apparently Evelyn has A. a smaller just noticeable difference for temperature than her roommate does B. a lower absolute threshold for temperature than her roommate does C. a larger just noticeable difference for temperature than her roommate does D. a higher absolute threshold for temperature, compared to her roommate ____ 25) Which of the following statements about culture and dreams is not accurate? A. Some basic dream themes appear to be nearly universal across cultures. B. People in Western societies tend to recall their dreams vividly. C. In many cultures, dreams are seen as a window into the spiritual world. D. In Western cultures, dreams are largely written off as insignificant. ____ 26) The idea that hypnosis is associated with divided consciousness and is an altered state is most consistent with which of the following theories of hypnosis? A. Barber's role theory B. Schachter's cognitive theory C. Freud's psychoanalytic theory D. Hilgard's dissociation theory ____ 27) Harold begins to chew his fingernails every time his teacher enters the classroom. In this case the antecedent is A. the teacher entering the classroom B. the fear associated with the teacher C. anticipated punishment D. chewing the fingernails ____ 28) Sonja put on a new watch this morning and found it uncomfortable because it was so much heavier than her old watch. However, at noon, when a friend asks her if she knows what time it is, Sonja finds she has forgotten she is even wearing the watch. The change in Sonja's sensitivity to the pressure of the watch illustrates the process known as A. sensory adaptation B. perceptual invariance C. perceptual assimilation D. adjusting just noticeable differences ____ 29) A conditioned stimulus is A. a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning B. an unlearned reaction that occurs without previous conditioning C. a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to elicit a conditioned response D. a learned reaction that occurs because of previous conditioning ____ 30) Slow-wave sleep refers to stages __________ and an EEG rhythm of __________. A. 1 and 2; theta B. 2 and 3; alpha C. 1 and 4; theta D. 3 and 4; delta 2mw3 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: C REF: 246 Correct = 80% 2) ANS: C REF: 225 3) ANS: C REF: 210 4) ANS: A REF: 186 5) ANS: D REF: 238 Correct = 68% 6) ANS: A REF: 145 7) ANS: C REF: 135 8) ANS: D REF: 181 9) ANS: C REF: 229 10) ANS: D REF: 241 11) ANS: C REF: 234 12) ANS: C REF: 214 Correct = 74% 13) ANS: C REF: 230 14) ANS: D REF: 164 Correct = 73% 15) ANS: D REF: 192 Correct = 80% 16) ANS: C REF: 149 17) ANS: B REF: 194 Correct = 82% 18) ANS: B REF: 162 19) ANS: C REF: 185 20) ANS: D REF: 206 21) ANS: A REF: 167 Correct = 68% 22) ANS: A REF: 161 23) ANS: C REF: 140 Correct = 87% 24) ANS: C REF: 127 25) ANS: B REF: 197 26) ANS: D REF: 202 Correct = 50% 27) ANS: A REF: 257 Correct = 44% 28) ANS: A REF: 130 29) ANS: C REF: 223 30) ANS: D REF: 185 ____ 1) When Lindsay was nine years old the neighbor's chihuahua bit her on the ankle. Today Lindsay is still terrified of chihuahuas, but she likes almost all other types of dogs. Lindsay's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of: A. instinctive drift B. stimulus discrimination C. stimulus generalization D. negative avoidance ____ 2) Rather than provide details about the party she just attended, Patty tried to give her overall impression, operating on the assumption of __________, that the whole may be greater than the mere sum of its parts. A. psychophysics B. holistic psychology C. Gestalt psychology D. psychodynamics ____ 3) Dissociation refers to A. a loss of inhibition by hypnotized subjects B. a hypnotized subject's willingness to act out the hypnotist's suggestions C. a splitting of mental processes into two separate, simultaneous streams of awareness D. role playing by hypnotized subjects in response to situational cues ____ 4) In order to maximize visual acuity at night, you should A. look directly at the object you wish to see B. turn your head at a slight angle to the object C. close one eye D. blink your eyes several times to hasten dark adaptation ____ 5) Primary reinforcers __________, while secondary reinforcers __________. A. depend on learning; satisfy biological needs B. satisfy biological needs; depend on learning C. are associated with classical conditioning; are associated with operant conditioning D. are associated with operant conditioning; are associated with classical conditioning ____ 6) Pitch perception can best be explained by __________ for very low-pitched sounds, __________ for very high-pitched sounds, and __________ for pitches in the middle range. A. place theory; frequency theory; place theory B. frequency theory; both theories; place theory C. place theory; both theories; frequency theory D. frequency theory; place theory; both theories ____ 7) In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the A. unconditioned stimulus B. unconditioned response C. conditioned stimulus D. conditioned response ____ 8) Voluntary muscle activity A. is at its lowest during REM sleep B. is at its highest during REM sleep C. does not occur in NREM sleep D. does not occur during either REM or NREM sleep ____ 9) The electroencephalograph is used in sleep research to measure brain-wave activity in the A. corpus callosum B. cerebral cortex C. hypothalamus D. medulla ____ 10) Which of the following is not good advice for combating insomnia? A. Develop a bedtime sleep ritual. B. Read a dull textbook before going to bed. C. Avoid taking naps during the day. D. Have a cup of warm coffee just before going to bed. ____ 11) An antecedent in a behavior modification program is A. a source of a reinforcement B. an event that precedes a behavior C. a consequent of performing a behavior D. an emotional component associated with the receipt of reinforcement or punishment ____ 12) Which of the following describes how we hear according to place theory? A. Different sound frequencies vibrate different portions of the basilar membrane, producing different pitches. B. Our perception of pitch corresponds to the rate or frequency at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates. C. We perceive differences in pitch according to the number of hair cells that vibrate at any one time. D. Different sound frequencies affect the intensity with which the membrane separating the middle ear from the inner ear vibrates, producing different pitches. ____ 13) Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is A. a conditioned response B. an unconditioned stimulus C. an unconditioned response D. a conditioned stimulus ____ 14) When an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with the conditioning process, it is referred to as A. learned helplessness B. instinctive drift C. counterconditioning D. misbehavior ____ 15) Mixing many, varied paints together would tend to produce a __________, while projecting many varied colored spots on the same area of a screen would tend to produce a __________. A. bright, light color; dark, dull color B. dull, dark color; light, whitish color C. reddish color; bluish color D. dull, dark color; dull, dark color ____ 16) The brain receives information about the positions of the various parts of the body through the A. vestibular sense B. kinesthetic sense C. kinetic sense D. homeostatic sense ____ 17) Carly used to be afraid of visits to her family doctor because she associated the sight of his waiting room with the pain of having a blood sample drawn. However, Carly's new doctor's lab worker is "painless" and the sight of the waiting room is no longer associated with pain. Consequently, Carly finds her fear of visits to her family doctor has disappeared. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as A. spontaneous recovery B. extinction C. second-order conditioning D. avoidance ____ 18) You are watching a pigeon pecking a disk in a small chamber. There is a cumulative recorder connected to the disk. While you are watching, the pigeon is pecking at a slow, steady rate. Based on this information, you can predict that the line on the cumulative recorder will A. have a steep, upward slope B. have a shallow, upward slope C. have a shallow, downward slope D. have a steep, downward slope ____ 19) Studies indicate that partial sleep deprivation can impair which of the following? A. attention B. reaction time C. decision making D. attention, reaction time, or decision making ____ 20) In the __________ culture, dreams are viewed as the focal point of existence that determines an individual's way of life. A. Marakesh of Morocco B. aborigines of Australia C. Arapesh of New Guinea D. Parintinin of Brazil ____ 21) Jacob has been working at his computer for the past 2 hours, and the hum that he found so annoying when he started no longer bothers him. The change in Jacob's sensitivity to the noise from the computer illustrates the process known as A. perceptual invariance B. perceptual assimilation C. adjusting just noticeable differences D. sensory adaptation ____ 22) Which of the following has been used with modest success in the treatment of narcolepsy? A. group therapy B. cognitive-behavioral therapy C. sedative drugs D. stimulant drugs ____ 23) The sense associated with the perception of smell is A. gustation B. olfaction C. kinesthesis D. audition ____ 24) Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as A. alpha waves B. REM waves C. synchronisitic waves D. theta waves ____ 25) The most widely used recreational drug in the United States is A. cocaine B. alcohol C. marijuana D. the barbiturates ____ 26) The matching law states that under concurrent schedules of reinforcement, organisms' relative rate of responding to each alternative A. tends to increase steadily over time B. tends to decrease steadily over time C. tends to match each alternative's relative rate of reinforcement D. tends to fluctuate randomly across the alternatives ____ 27) Images that occupy more space on your retina are seen as nearer relative to images that occupy less space. This is a cue to depth perception known as A. accommodation B. foveal disparity C. phrenetic search D. relative size ____ 28) Which of the following drugs is least likely to result in a fatal overdose? A. LSD B. heroin C. cocaine D. barbiturates ____ 29) What appears to be responsible for regulating the circadian rhythm? A. amount of time spent sleeping B. amount of time spent awake C. cultural practices D. exposure to light ____ 30) If a 100-Hz tone had to be increased to 110 Hz for a subject to just notice the difference, you would predict that a 1000-Hz tone would have to be increased to A. 1010 to be noticed B. 1050 to be noticed C. 1100 to be noticed D. 1200 to be noticed 2mw11 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: B REF: 230 2) ANS: C REF: 145 Correct = 88% 3) ANS: C REF: 202 Correct = 85% 4) ANS: B REF: 135 5) ANS: B REF: 237 6) ANS: D REF: 161 Correct = 74% 7) ANS: C REF: 223 Correct = 58% 8) ANS: A REF: 185 9) ANS: B REF: 181 10) ANS: D REF: 213 11) ANS: B REF: 257 12) ANS: A REF: 160 13) ANS: B REF: 225 Correct = 23% 14) ANS: B REF: 246 Correct = 80% 15) ANS: B REF: 140 Correct = 86% 16) ANS: B REF: 167 Correct = 86% 17) ANS: B REF: 229 18) ANS: B REF: 234 19) ANS: D REF: 191 20) ANS: B REF: 197 Correct = 41% 21) ANS: D REF: 130 22) ANS: D REF: 194 23) ANS: B REF: 164 Correct = 96% 24) ANS: D REF: 185 25) ANS: B REF: 206 Correct = 95% 26) ANS: C REF: 240 27) ANS: D REF: 149 Correct = 78% 28) ANS: A REF: 209 29) ANS: D REF: 182 30) ANS: C REF: 127 Correct = 87% ____ 1) An EEG would indicate primarily __________ activity in a person who is meditating with eyes closed. A. alpha B. beta C. delta D. theta ____ 2) Kara has just fallen aslee
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